Egress Design Solutions: A Guide to Evacuation and Crowd Management Planning
St. Lawrence University Laboratory Building.
Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport.
International Finance Center.
Myths and Misconceptions.
Part 1. Background.
1. Building Codes and Regulations.
History and Overview of Building and Fire Codes in the United States.
Scope of Building and Fire Codes.
Application of Building and Fire Codes.
ICC Codes and Egress.
Evolution to Performance-Based Codes.
Looking to the Future.
2. Historic Events.
Iroquois Theater, Chicago, Illinois, 1903.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, New York, New York, 1911.
Italian Hall Disaster, Calumet, Michigan, 1913.
Rhythm Club, Natchez, Mississippi, 1940.
Cocoanut Grove Nightclub Fire, Boston, Massachusetts, 1942.
Ringling Brothers, Barnum & Bailey Circus Tent Fire, Hartford, Connecticut, 1944.
Our Lady of Angels School Fire, Chicago, Illinois, 1958.
Hartford Hospital Fire, Hartford, Connecticut, 1961.
Beverly Hills Supper Club Fire, Southgate, Kentucky, 1977.
The Who Concert, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1979.
MGM Grand Fire, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1980.
Dupont Plaza, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1986.
World Trade Center Bombing, New York, New York, 1993.
World Trade Center Collapse, New York, New York, 2001.
E2 Nightclub, Chicago, Illinois, 2003.
The Station Nightclub Fire, West Warwick, Rhode Island, 2003.
Cook County Administration Building, Chicago, Illinois, 2003.
Part 2. Egress System Fundamentals
3. Egress Strategies.
Egress System Goals and Objectives.
General Egress Strategies.
Designing for Occupants with Disabilities.
Emerging Egress Strategies.
Selecting and Evaluating Options.
4. Prescriptive Egress Concepts.
5. Supporting Systems.
Control of Combustibles.
Smoke Management Systems.
Evacuation Using Elevators.
Types of Elevators.
Part 3. Human Behavior and Performance Concepts.
6. Human Behavior Considerations for Egress System Design.
Occupant Reaction and Response in Emergency Situations.
Human Behavior and Crowds.
Using Occupant Risk Factors to Aid Egress System Design.
7. Performance Egress Concepts.
Performance Egress Overview.
Safety Factors and Uncertainties.
Evacuation Time Calculation Overview.
Limitations with Engineering Calculations.
Designing for Elevator Evacuation.
Part 4. Evacuation Planning and Design
8. Evacuation Planning and Crowd Management.
Evacuation Planning Overview.
Evacuation Plan Development.
Typical Challenges with Evacuation Plans.
Roles and Responsibilities during Incidents.
Evacuation Drilling and Training.
Crowd Management Planning.
9. Design Solutions.
Air Traffic Control Towers.
Arenas, Stadia, and Sports Facilities.
Convention and Exhibit Centers.
Detention and Correctional Facilities.
Day-Care, Adult-Care, and Assisted-Living Facilities.
Historic and Existing Buildings.
Museums and Libraries.
Performing Arts Centers.
Rail Stations and Platforms.
Rail and Road Tunnels.
About the Authors.
Brian J. Meacham, PhD, PE, is a principal with Arup, leading the firm's Global Risk Consulting Business. A licensed engineer and a fellow of the Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Meacham is widely regarded as an expert in risk-informed performance-based approaches to building regulation and fire protection design. He holds appointments of adjunct associate professor in fire protection engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and research associate professor and director, Center for Risk and Security, Clark University. Meacham is the editor of the ICC book Performance-Based Building Design Concepts: A Companion to the ICC Performance Code and lead editor of the NFPA book Extreme Event Mitigation in Buildings: Analysis and Design.