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Quantitative Environmental Risk Analysis for Human Health

ISBN: 978-0-471-72243-4
404 pages
January 2007
Quantitative Environmental Risk Analysis for Human Health (047172243X) cover image
A COMPREHENSIVE TEXTBOOK AND REFERENCE FOR QUANTITATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ANALYSIS FOR BOTH CHEMICAL AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

Environmental risk analysis is complex and interdisciplinary; this book explains the fundamental concepts and analytical methods in each essential discipline. With an emphasis on concepts and applications of quantitative tools plus coverage of analysis of both chemical and radioactive contaminants, this is a comprehensive resource.

After an introduction and an overview of the basics of environmental modeling, the book covers key elements in environmental risk analysis methodology, including:

  • Release assessment and source characterization
  • Migration of contaminants in various media, including surface water, groundwater, the atmosphere, and the food chain
  • Exposure assessment
  • Basic human toxicology and dose-response
  • Risk characterization, including dose-response modeling and analysis
  • Risk management process and methods
  • Risk communication and public participation

This reference also relates risk analysis to current environmental laws and regulations. An ideal textbook for graduate students and upper-level undergraduates in various engineering and quantitative science disciplines, especially civil and environmental engineering, it is also a great reference for practitioners in industry, environmental consulting firms, and regulatory agencies.

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Preface.

1 Introduction.

1.1 Risk Analysis.

1.2 Risk.

1.3 Contaminants in the Environment.

1.4 Uses of Environmental Risk Assessment.

1.5 Risk Assessment Process.

References.

Additional Reading.

Problems.

2 Fundamental Aspects of Environmental Modeling.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Modeling Process.

2.3 Physical and Mathematical Basis for Risk Assessment Models.

2.4 Contaminant Transport Equation.

References.

Problems.

3 Release Assessment.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Conceptual Model.

3.3 Contaminant Identification.

3.4 Emission-Rate Quantification.

References.

Additional Reading.

Problems.

4 Environmental Transport Theory.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 One-Dimensional Solutions of the Contaminant Transport Equation.

4.3 Three-Dimensional Contaminant Transport.

4.4 Advanced Solution Methods.

References.

Additional Reading.

Problems.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Types of Surface Water Bodies.

5.3 Sorption.

5.4 Transport Modeling.

References.

Additional Reading.

Problems.

6 Groundwater Transport.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Subsurface Characterization.

6.3 Saturated Flow in Porous Media.

6.4 Sorption.

6.5 Subsurface Contaminant Transport Modeling.

6.6 Other Considerations in Groundwater Transport.

References.

Additional Reading.

Problems.

7 Atmospheric Transport.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Atmospheric Dispersion.

7.3 Atmospheric Transport Models.

7.4 Other Considerations.

References.

Additional Reading.

Problems.

8 Food Chain Transport.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Concentration in Soil.

8.3 Concentration in Vegetation.

8.4 Concentration in Animals.

References.

Problems.

9 Exposure Assessment.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Dose.

9.3 Contaminant Intake.

9.4 Dose Calculations.

References.

Problems.

10 Basic Human Toxicology.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology.

10.3 Mechanisms and Effects of Toxicity.

References.

Additional Reading.

Problems.

11 Dose–Response and Risk Characterization.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Biological Basis of Dose–Response Modeling.

11.3 Elements of Quantitative Dose–Response Analysis.

11.4 Dose–Response Modeling.

11.5 Risk Characterization.

11.6 Regulatory Implementation.

References.

Additional Reading.

Problems.

12 Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Types and Sources of Uncertainty.

12.3 Statistical Fundamentals.

12.4 Uncertainty Propagation.

References.

Problems.

13 Stakeholder Involvement and Risk Communication.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Stakeholder Involvement.

13.3 Risk Communication.

References.

Problems.

14 Environmental Risk Management.

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Risk Management Process.

14.3 Risk Management Methods.

References.

Problems.

15 Environmental Laws and Regulations.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 General Legal and Regulatory Structure for Environmental Protection.

15.3 Major Federal Environmental Laws and Regulations.

15.4 CERCLA Process.

15.5 Additional Regulations.

References.

Problems.

Appendix A Mathematical Tools.

A.1 Special Functions.

A.2 Laplace Transforms.

References.

Additional Reading.

Appendix B Degradation and Decay Parameters.

Index.

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ROBERT A. FJELD, PhD, is the Dempsey Professor of Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, at Clemson University. He was among the first to develop curriculum covering quantitative human health risk assessment for both chemical and radiological contaminants.

NORMAN A. EISENBERG, PhD, has over thirty years of experience in environmental risk analysis, including work on environmental analysis within the federal government (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy) and as a consultant, and teaching graduate environmental courses at the University of Maryland.

KEITH L. COMPTON, PhD, is a systems performance analyst in the Division of Waste Management at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

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"For bold statisticians who want to break new ground and are willing to invest some time and effort in learning the terminology, mathematical models, and culture of environmental risk assessment, this book may be an invaluable resource." (Biometrics, September 2008)

"…well-written and useful to both academia and professional audiences." (Journal of Environmental Quality, September-October 2007)

"…I would enthusiastically adopt for a risk analysis course if I were to teach one. It is good." (Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 16, 2007)

"The book is designed for both academic and professional audiences, to allow flexible approaches to instruction." (Environmental Geology, 2007)

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