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Wireless Information Networks, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-72542-8
760 pages
September 2005
Wireless Information Networks, 2nd Edition (0471725420) cover image
Towards location aware mobile ad hoc sensors

A Systems Engineering Approach to Wireless Information Networks

The Second Edition of this internationally respected textbook brings readers fully up to date with the myriad of developments in wireless communications. When first published in 1995, wireless communications was synonymous with cellular telephones. Now wireless information networks are the most important technology in all branches of telecommunications. Readers can learn about the latest applications in such areas as ad hoc sensor networks, home networking, and wireless positioning.

Wireless Information Networks takes a systems engineering approach: technical topics are presented in the context of how they fit into the ongoing development of new systems and services, as well as the recent developments in national and international spectrum allocations and standards. The authors have organized the myriad of current and emerging wireless technologies into logical categories:
* Introduction to Wireless Networks presents an up-to-the-moment discussion of the evolution of the cellular industry from analog cellular technology to 2G, 3G, and 4G, as well as the emergence of WLAN and WPAN as broadband ad hoc networks
* Characteristics of Radio Propagation includes new coverage of channel modeling for space-time, MIMO, and UWB communications and wireless geolocation networks
* Modem Design offers new descriptions of space-time coding, MIMO antenna systems, UWB communications, and multi-user detection and interference cancellation techniques used in CDMA networks
* Network Access and System Aspects incorporates new chapters on UWB systems and RF geolocations, with a thorough revision of wireless access techniques and wireless systems and standards

Exercises that focus on real-world problems are provided at the end of each chapter. The mix of assignments, which includes computer projects and questionnaires in addition to traditional problem sets, helps readers focus on key issues and develop the skills they need to solve actual engineering problems. Extensive references are provided for those readers who would like to explore particular topics in greater depth.

With its emphasis on knowledge-building to solve problems, this is an excellent graduate-level textbook. Like the previous edition, this latest edition will also be a standard reference for the telecommunications industry.
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Preface xi

PART I INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS NETWORKS 1

1 Overview of Wireless Networks 3

1.1 Introduction, 3

1.2 Network Architecture and Design Issues, 6

1.3 Key Trends in Wireless Networking, 20

1.4 Outline of the Book, 21

Questions, 22

2 Evolution of the Wireless Industry 23

2.1 Introduction, 23

2.2 Three Views of the Wireless Industry, 29

2.3 Three Generations of Cellular Networks, 32

2.4 Trends in Wireless Technologies, 43

Questions, 49

PART II CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIO PROPAGATION 51

3 Characterization of Radio Propagation 53

3.1 Introduction, 53

3.2 Multipath Fading and the Distance–Power Relationship, 55

3.3 Local Movements and Doppler Shift, 64

3.4 Multipath for Wideband Signals, 66

3.5 Classical Uncorrelated Scattering Model, 72

3.6 Indoor and Urban Radio Propagation Modeling, 81

Questions, 86

Problems, 87

Projects, 89

4 Modeling and Simulation of Narrowband Signal Characteristics 93

4.1 Introduction, 93

4.2 Modeling Path Loss and Slow Shadow Fading, 96

4.3 Doppler Spectrum of Fast Envelope Fading, 110

4.4 Statistical Behavior of Fast Envelope Fading, 122

4.5 Simulation of Fast Envelope Fading, 126

Questions, 133

Problems, 134

Projects, 137

5 Measurement of Wideband and UWB Channel Characteristics 149

5.1 Introduction, 149

5.2 Time-Domain Measurement Techniques, 151

5.3 Frequency-Domain Measurement Techniques, 171

5.4 Advances in Frequency-Domain Channel Measurement, 180

Questions, 197

Problems, 198

Project, 200

6 Modeling of Wideband Radio Channel Characteristics 205

6.1 Introduction, 206

6.2 Wideband Time-Domain Statistical Modeling, 208

6.3 Wideband Frequency-Domain Channel Modeling, 234

6.4 Comparison Between Statistical Models, 243

6.5 Ray-Tracing Algorithms, 245

6.6 Direct Solution of Radio Propagation Equations, 261

6.7 Comparison of Deterministic and Statistical Modeling, 263

6.8 Site-Specific Statistical Model, 265

Appendix 6A: GSM-Recommended Multipath Propagation

Models, 270

Appendix 6B: Wideband Multipath Propagation Models, 272

Questions, 274

Problems, 275

Projects, 277

PART III MODEM DESIGN 279

7 Narrowband Modem Technology 281

7.1 Introduction, 282

7.2 Basic Modulation Techniques, 284

7.3 Theoretical Limits and Practical Impairments, 307

7.4 Traditional Modems for Wide-Area Wireless Networks, 312

7.5 Other Aspects of Modem Implementation, 328

Questions, 335

Problems, 336

Projects, 338

8 Fading, Diversity, and Coding 341

8.1 Introduction, 341

8.2 Radio Communication on Flat Rayleigh Fading Channels, 343

8.3 Diversity Combining, 347

8.4 Error-Control Coding for Wireless Channels, 353

8.5 Space-Time Coding, 363

8.6 MIMO and STC, 365

Questions, 372

Problems, 372

Projects, 374

9 Broadband Modem Technologies 377

9.1 Introduction, 378

9.2 Effects of Frequency-Selective Multipath Fading, 380

9.3 Discrete Multipath Fading Channel Model, 384

9.4 Adaptive Discrete Matched Filter, 389

9.5 Adaptive Equalization, 393

9.6 Sectored Antennas, 405

9.7 Multicarrier, OFDM, and Frequency Diversity, 411

9.8 Comparison of Traditional Broadband Modems, 421

9.9 MIMO in Frequency-Selective Fading, 423

Appendix 9A: Analysis of the Equalizers, 425

Questions, 428

Problems, 429

Projects, 431

10 Spread-Spectrum and CDMA Technology 435

10.1 Introduction, 435

10.2 Principles of Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum, 439

10.3 Principles of Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum, 444

10.4 Interference in Spread-Spectrum Systems, 464

10.5 Performance of CDMA Systems, 476

Questions, 494

Problems, 495

PART IV SYSTEMS ASPECTS 499

11 Topology, Medium Access, and Performance 501

11.1 Introduction, 501

11.2 Topologies for Local Networks, 503

11.3 Cellular Topology for Wide-Area Networks, 506

11.4 Centrally Controlled Assigned Access Methods, 521

11.5 Distributed Contention-Based Access Control, 537

Questions, 572

Problems, 573

Project, 576

12 Ultrawideband Communications 581

12.1 Introduction, 581

12.2 UWB Channel Characteristics, 584

12.3 Impulse Radio and Time-Hopping Access, 589

12.4 Direct-Sequence UWB, 595

12.5 Multiband OFDM, 599

Questions, 603

Problems, 604

13 RF Location Sensing 607

13.1 Introduction, 607

13.2 RF Location-Sensing Techniques, 611

13.3 Modeling The Behavior of RF Sensors, 619

13.4 Wireless Positioning Algorithms, 626

Questions, 636

Problems, 637

14 Wireless Optical Networks 639

14.1 Introduction, 639

14.2 Implementation, 641

14.3 Eye Safety, 643

14.4 IR Channel Characterization and Data-Rate Limitations, 644

14.5 Modulation Techniques for Optical Communications, 653

14.6 Multiple Access and Data Rate, 659

Questions, 661

15 Systems and Standards 663

15.1 Introduction, 663

15.2 GSM, GPRS, and EDGE, 664

15.3 CDMA and HDR, 674

15.4 Other Historical Systems, 679

15.5 Wireless LANs, 682

15.6 Speech Coding in Wireless Systems, 685

Questions, 687

References 689

Index 713

About the Authors 721

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KAVEH PAHLAVAN, PhD, is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, a Professor of Computer Science, and the Director of the Center for Wireless Information Network Studies, Worcester Polytechnic Institute. He is also a Visiting Professor at the Center for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland. Dr. Pahlavan is also the principal author of Principles of Wireless Networks: A Unified Approach, Editor in Chief of the International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, Fellow of the IEEE, a Nokia Fellow, and a former Fulbright-Nokia Scholar.

ALLEN H. LEVESQUE, PhD, is a consulting engineer specializing in digital communications technologies and an Adjunct Professor at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Dr. Levesque is coauthor of Error-Control Techniques for Digital Communication (Wiley), an Associate Editor of the International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, and a Fellow of the IEEE.

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