Fraud 101: Techniques and Strategies for Detection, 2nd Edition
It's not enough to wait for a tip to expose corporate fraud. Fraud 101, Second Edition provides step-by-step guidance on how to perform detection procedures for every major type of fraud. Its new and detailed case studies reveal how easy it can be for a perpetrator to commit a fraud and how difficult it can be to prosecute. This new edition also offers expanded coverage of financial statement fraud, fraud-specific internal control, and Sarbanes-Oxley.
1. The World of Fraud.
Who Commits Fraud and Why?
Fraud Prevention and Detection.
2. Fraud Combatants.
Fraud Company Profile (1987–1997).
Auditor Responsibilities to Detect Fraud.
Financial Statement Audit versus Fraud Investigation.
Audit Deficiencies and Audit Failures.
The New World.
3. Sarbanes-Oxley and Its Influence on Fraud Prevention.
Code of Ethics.
4. Proactive Fraud Investigations: An Introduction.
Fraud Investigations Defined.
Three Objectives of Fraud Investigations.
Proactive Fraud Investigations.
Advice for Inexperienced Fraud Investigators.
5. Proactive Fraud Investigations: Conducting the Investigation.
Art of Fishing.
How Proactive Fraud Investigators Think and Work.
Beginning the Investigation.
Selecting a Fraud Type.
Fraud Investigation Procedure.
6. Elementary Fraud Types.
Three Elementary Fraud Types: Definitions.
Duplicate Payment Fraud.
Multiple Payee Fraud.
7. Fraud Defectives.
Defective Delivery Fraud.
Defective Shipment Fraud.
Defective Pricing Fraud.
8. Contract Rigging Fraud.
Obtaining the Contract.
Contract Change Orders.
9. Ethical Behavior.
Accounting Ethical Standards.
Consequences of Unethical Behavior.
Codes of Conduct.
11. Symptomatic Fraud Investigation.
Symptoms of Fraud.
Variations in Actual versus Planned Cost.
“Should Cost” Approach.
Employee Lifestyle Changes.
12. Fraud Investigation Alternatives.
Monitoring Known or Suspected Fraud.
Monitoring Operational Areas at Risk of Fraud.
Fraud Investigations and Internal Control.
APPENDIX A: Anatomy of a Corporate Fraud.
APPENDIX B: Symptomatic Fraud Investigation Case Study.
APPENDIX C: Fraud-Specific Contract Review Case Study.
APPENDIX D: World Top Corporation Case Study.
HOWARD R. DAVIA (deceased) was a certified public accountant with more than thirty years of experience in government, industry, and public accounting. As an audit executive with both the U.S. General Accounting Office and the General Services Administration, and subsequently as a chief executive operating officer with the General Services Administration, he gained vast experience in the opportunities for fraud, as well as for its detection and deterrence. He is the author of Fraud 101 and coauthor of Accountant's Guide to Fraud Detection and Control, Second Edition (published by Wiley).