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Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants

ISBN: 978-0-471-72760-6
1064 pages
March 2012
Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants (0471727601) cover image
This book provides a broad reference covering important drugs of abuse including amphetamines, opiates, and steroids. It also covers psychoactive plants such as caffeine, peyote, and psilocybin. It provides chemical structures, analytical methods, clinical features, and treatments of these drugs of abuse, serving as a highly useful, in-depth supplement to a general medical toxicology book. The style allows for the easy application of the contents to searchable databases and other electronic products, making this an essential resource for practitioners in medical toxicology, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, pharmaceuticals, environmental organizations, pathology, and related fields.
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FOREWORD xi

PREFACE xiii

CONTRIBUTORS xv

REVIEW PANEL xvii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xix

PART 1 SYNTHETIC and SEMISYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 1

I Amphetamines and Phenethylamine Derivatives 3

1 Amphetamine and Methamphetamine 3

2 Methylphenidate 57

3 Prolintane 69

4 Propylhexedrine 72

II Club Drugs 77

5 Flunitrazepam 77

6 Gamma Hydroxybutyrate and Related Drugs 89

7 Ketamine 110

8 Methcathinone, Mephedrone, and Methylone 120

9 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy, MDMA) 126
Nicholas A. Buckley, MD

10 Psychoactive Phenethylamine, Piperazine, and Pyrrolidinophenone Derivatives 156
Brandon Wills, DO, MS, Timothy Erickson, MD

11 Tryptamine Designer Drugs 193

III Eating Disorders and Appetite Suppressants 200

12 Diuretics, Ipecac, and Laxatives 200
Cyrus Rangan, MD

13 Noradrenergic Agents 233
Cyrus Rangan, MD

14 Serotoninergic and Mixed Agents 255

IV Ergogenic Agents and Supplements 275

15 Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids 275

16 Clenbuterol and Salbutamol (Albuterol) 295
James Rhee, MD, Timothy Erickson, MD

17 Erythropoietin Stimulation and Other Blood Doping Methods 306
James Rhee, MD, Timothy Erickson, MD

18 Human Chorionic Gonadotropin 326

19 Human Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 334

20 Nutritional Supplements 351

V Ethanol 365

21 Ethanol 365

VI Lysergic Acid Diethylamide 452

22 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) 452

VII Older Sedative Hypnotic Drugs 467

23 Barbiturates (Amobarbital, Butalbital, Pentobarbital, Secobarbital) 467

24 Ethchlorvynol 486

25 Glutethimide 491

26 Meprobamate 497

27 Methaqualone and Related Compounds 504

VIII Opioids 514

28 Buprenorphine 514

29 Dextromethorphan 527

30 Fentanyl Analogues 539

31 Heroin and the Opium Poppy Plant (Papaver somniferum L.) 546

32 Methadone 579

33 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) 603

IX Phencyclidine 608

34 Phencyclidine and Phencyclidine Analogues 608

X Volatile Substances of Abuse 633

35 Volatile Substance Abuse 633

A Anesthetics 642

36 Chloroform 642

37 Ethers 647

38 Halogenated Ethers (Enflurane, Isoflurane, Methoxyflurane, Sevoflurane) 653

39 Halothane 664

40 Nitrous Oxide 670

B Fluorinated Alkanes 676

41 Fluorinated Alkanes 676

C Industrial Hydrocarbons 684

42 Butane, Isobutane, and Propane 684

43 Ethyl Chloride 691

44 Gasoline 695

45 n-Hexane 702

46 Methanol 709

47 Naphthalene and para-Dichlorobenzene (Mothballs) 716

48 Toluene 725

49 Trichloroethane 737

50 Trichloroethylene 743

D Nitrogen Compounds 751

51 Amyl and Butyl Nitrites 751

PART 2 PSYCHOACTIVE PLANTS 759

52 Absinthe 761

53 Ayahuasca, Harmala Alkaloids, and Dimethyltryptamines 768

54 Betel Quid and Areca Nut 781

55 Caffeine 788

56 Cocaine 805

57 Ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga Baill.) 867

58 Khat (Catha edulis (Vahl) Forsskal ex Endl.) and Cathinone 873

59 Kratom

[Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil.] 880

60 Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) and Synthetic Cannabinoids 886

61 Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) 932

62 Morning Glory Family (Convolvulaceae) 938

63 Peyote [Lophophora williamsii (Lem. Ex Salm-Dyck) Coult.] and Mescaline 944

64 Psilocybin and Hallucinogenic Mushrooms 950

65 Salvia divinorum Epling & Jativa and Salvinorin A 961

66 Tobacco, Nicotine, and Pituri 968

INDEX 993

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“All in all, this is an admirable and helpful book that has assembled a great deal of useful information in a usable and systematically presented form.”  (British Toxicology Society, 1 July 2013)

"Dr. Barceloux has once again produced an encyclopedic reference book in medical toxicology. This text should be place alongside Dr. Barceloux’s previous volume on natural toxins and found in every poison control center, reference library, and the personal library of every medical toxicologist. Drug enforcement agencies, forensic toxicologists, and pharmacologists would benefit from the use of this work also. I highly recommended it as the premier work on the topic." (Edward J. Otten, The Journal of Emergency Medicine, April 2013)


“This is an excellent reference work that will be of great interest to all who specialize in abused substances, whether they be analytical chemists, poison information specialists or treatment providers.  It deserves to be one of the very first sources consulted when assessing a human exposure to a recreational drug or chemical.”  (International Association of Forensic Toxicologists, 1 February 2013)

“Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuseis a comprehensive, well researched, solidly founded treatise on all aspects of synthesized drugs of abuse and psychoactive plants.”  (Annals of Emergency Medicine, 1 March 2013)

“It is the nature of text-books that they cannot catch all of the last-minute findings. Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse includes so much that one must congratulate the accomplishment.”  (Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 4 December  2012)

“Aa a member of ACMT, I am constantly amazed at the talent in our organisation.  Dr. Barceloux demonstrates his depth of knowledge and excellent writing skills in these recently published textbooks.  Both books are an excellent resources for medical toxicologists.”  (American College of Medical Toxicology, 1 December  2012)

“Despite this potential omission, Dr. Barceloux must be commended for this tremendous effort. It is rare to have an authoritative encyclopedia of information be predominately written by one person, clearly a labor of love. Without question, this book is a “must have” reference for anyone involved with drugs of abuse.”  (Journal of Forensic Sciences, 1 November 2012)

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Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants (US $199.95)

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