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Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals

ISBN: 978-0-471-72761-3
1200 pages
November 2008
Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals (047172761X) cover image


Interest and information in the field of medical toxicology has grown rapidly, but there has never been a concise, authoritative reference focused on the subjects of natural substances, chemical and physical toxins, drugs of abuse, and pharmaceutical overdoses. Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances finally gives you an easily accessible resource for vital toxicological information on foods, plants, and animals in key areas in the natural environment.
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Table of Contents






I Chemical Contamination and Additives (Cyrus Rangan, MD, FAAP).

1 Food Contamination.

2 Food Additives and Sensitivities.

II Staples and Spices.

3 Akee Fruit and Jamaican Vomiting Sickness (Blighia sapida Köenig).

4 Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Species).

5 Cyanogenic Foods (Cassava, Fruit Kernels, and Cycad Seeds).

6 Cycad Seeds and Chronic Neurologic Disease (Cycas Species).

7 Djenkol Bean [Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I. C. Nielsen].

8 Grass Pea and Neurolathyrism (Lathyrus sativus L.).

9 Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.).

10 Pepper and Capsaicin (Capsicum and Piper Species).

11 Potatoes, Tomatoes, and Solanine Toxicity (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanum lycopersicum L.).

12 Rhubarb and Oxalosis (Rheum Species).

III Microbes.

A Bacteria (Cyrus Rangan, MD, FAAP).

13 Bacillus cereus.

14 Campylobacter jejuni.

15 Clostridium botulinum (Botulism).

16 Clostridium perfringens.

17 Escherichia coli.

18 Listeria monocytogenes.

19 Salmonella.

20 Shigella Species (Shiga Enterotoxins).

21 Staphylococcus aureus.

22 Streptococcus Species.

23 Vibrio Species.

24 Yersinia enterocolitica.

B Other Microbes.

25 Cyanobacteria.

26 Protozoa and Intestinal Parasites.

27 Gastrointestinal Viruses.

IV Seafood.

28 Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning and Domoic.

29 Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning and Azaspiracid Toxins.

30 Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning and Okadaic Acid.

31 Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning and Brevetoxins.

32 Paralytic Shellfi sh Poisoning and Saxitoxins.

33 Ciguatera Fish Poisoning and Ciguatoxins.

34 Puffer Fish Poisoning and Tetrodotoxin.

35 Red Whelk and Tetramine.

36 Scombroid Fish, Scombrotoxin, and Histamine.


I Mushrooms.

37 Amatoxin-Containing Mushrooms.

38 False Morel and Gyromitrin Poisoning.

39 Gastroenteritis-Producing Mushrooms.

40 Inky Cap and Coprine Toxicity [Coprinus atramentarius (Bull.) Fr.].

41 Isoxazole-Containing Mushrooms and Pantherina Syndrome (Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina).

42 Muscarine-Containing Mushrooms and Muscarine Toxicity (Clitocybe and Inocybe Species).

43 Orellanine-Containing Mushrooms and Nephrotoxicity (Cortinarius Species).

44 Paxillus and Other Mushroom Syndromes.

II Mycotoxins.

45 Mycotoxins.


I Medicinal Herbs.

46 Aloe Vera [Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.].

47 Aristolochic Acid and Chinese Herb Nephropathy.

48 Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.).

49 Blue Cohosh [Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx.].

50 Borage (Borago officinalis L.).

51 Burdock Root (Arctium lappa L.).

52 Calamus (Acorus calamus L.).

53 Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora T. Nees & Eberm.).

54 Cascara (Frangula purshiana Cooper).

55 Catâ??s Claw [Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC.].

56 Chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Chamaemelum nobile L.].

57 Chaparral [Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Moc. ex DC.) Vail].

58 Chaste Tree (Vitex agnus-castus L.).

59 Clove and Eugenol [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry].

60 Colocynth [Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.].

61 Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.).

62 Comfrey and Other Pyrrolizidine-Containing Plants.

63 Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton).

64 Dong Quai [Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels].

65 Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium Schultz Bip.).

66 Garlic (Allium sativum L.).

67 Germander (Teucrium chamaedrys L.).

68 Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

69 Ginkgo Tree (Ginkgo biloba L.).

70 Ginseng.

71 Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.).

72 Hawthorn (Crataegus Species).

73 Impila, Pine Thistle, and Atractyloside.

74 Jin Bu Huan and Tetrahydropalmatine.

75 Juniper (Juniper communis L.).

76 Kava (Piper methysticum Forster).

77 Lavender (Lavandula Species).

78 Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Species).

79 Ma Huang (Ephedra Alkaloids)

80 Milk Thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner].

81 Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.).

82 Pennyroyal and Pulegone (Mentha pulegium L.).

83 Purple Coneflower and Other Echinacea Species.

84 Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.).

85 Rue (Ruta graveolens L.).

86 Sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees].

87 Saw Palmetto [Serenoa repens (Bartram) J.K. Small].

88 Senna (Senna alexandrina P. Mill.).

89 Skullcap (Scutellaria laterifl ora L.).

90 St. Johnâ??s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.).

91 Star Anise (Illicium verum Hook. F. and Illicium anisatum L.).

92 Star Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.).

93 Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.).

94 Valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.).

95 Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.)

96 Yohimbe Bark and Yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe Pierre ex Beille).

II Essential Oils.

97 Citronella Oil [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle].

98 Citrus Oil and Limonene.

99 Eucalyptus Oil (Eucalyptus Species).

100 Neem Oil (Margosa Oil) (Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.).

101 Peppermint Oil (Mentha x piperita L.).

102 Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Species).

103 Tung Oil (Aleurites fordii Hemsl.).

104 Turpentine and Pine Oil (Pinus Species).


I Plant Dermatitis.

105 Plant Dermatitis.

II Bulbs, Rhizomes, and Tubers.

106 Buttercup Family.

107 Colchicine-Containing Plants.

108 Daffodils and Other Emetic Bulbs.

109 Death Camas.

110 Kaffir Lily [Clivia miniata (Lindley) Bosse].

111 Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L.).

112 Zephyr Lily (Zephyranthes Species).

III Beans.

113 Castor Bean and Ricin (Ricinus communis L.).

114 Cowitch and Horse Eye Bean (Mucuna Species).

115 Jequirity Bean and Abrin (Abrus precatorius L.).

116 Mescal Bean [Sophora secundiflora (Ortega) Lagasca ex DC.].

IV Nonwoody Plants (Herbs).

117 Aconite Poisoning and Monkshood.

118 African Blue Lily (Agapanthus Species).

119 Red Baneberry [Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd.].

120 Begonias.

121 Yellow Bird-of-Paradise [Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Wallich ex D. Dietr.].

122 Century Plant (Agave americana L.).

123 Cleistanthin, Diterpene Esters, and the Spurge Family (Euphorbiaceae).

124 Cyanogenic Plants and Laetrile®.

125 Dieffenbachia and Other Oxalate-Containing House Plants.

126 Digitalis-Containing Flowers (Foxglove, Lily of the Valley).

127 Jimson Weed and Other Belladonna Alkaloids.

128 Lupines and False Lupine.

129 Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum L.).

130 Mistletoe.

131 Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

132 Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.).

133 European Bittersweet and Other Solanum Species.

134 Sweet Pea and Osteolathyrism.

135 Tree Tobacco and Other Piperidine-Containing Plants.

136 Veratrum Alkaloids.

137 Wandering Jew (Tradescantia fl uminensis Vellozo).

138 Water Hemlock and Water Dropwort.

139 White Snakeroot [Ageratina altissima (L.) King & H.E. Robins].

V Shrubs and Vines.

140 Barbados Nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

141 Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens L.).

142 Buckthorn [Karwinskia humboldtiana (J.A. Schultes) Zucc.]

143 Cactus.

144 Carolina Jessamine [Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) St. Hil.].

145 Daphne (Daphne mezereum L.).

146 Dog Laurel (Leucothoe Species).

147 Dogbane Family and Cardenolides.

148 Holly (Ilex Species).

149 Honeysuckle (Lonicera Species).

150 Ivy and Falcarinol.

151 Lantana (Lantana camara L.).

152 Rhododendrons and Grayanotoxins.

153 Snowberry [Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake)].

154 Squirting Cucumber [Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Richard].

155 Wisteria.

VI Trees.

156 Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.).

157 Buckeye (Aesculus Species).

158 Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.).

159 Golden Chain Tree (Laburnum anagyroides Medikus).

160 Karaka Nut (Corynocarpus laevigatus J.R. & G. Forst.).

161 Oaks (Quercus Species).

162 Pepper Tree (Schinus Species).

163 Yew (Taxus Species).


I Arthropods.

A Arachnids.

164 Mites and Ticks (Order: Acari).

165 Scorpions (Order: Scorpiones).

166 Spiders (Order: Araneae).

B Centipedes.

167 Centipedes (Subclass: Chilopoda).

C Insects.

168 Bees, Wasps, and Ants (Order: Hymenoptera).

169 Bugs and Blister Beetles.

170 Fleas (Order: Siphonaptera).

171 Flies and Mosquitoes (Order: Diptera).

172 Lice (Order: Phthiraptera).

173 Moths and Butterflies (Order: Lepidoptera).

II Reptiles.

174 Amphibiansâ??Toads, Frogs, Salamanders, and Newts (Class: Amphibia).

175 Gila Monster and Beaded Lizard.

176 Terrestrial Snakes (Suborder: Serpentes).

177 Sea Snakes.

III Marine Invertebrates.

178 Cone Shells and Blue-Ringed Octopus (Phylum: Mollusca).

179 Jellyfish, Hydroids, Sea Anemones, and Corals (Phylum: Cnidaria).

180 Sponges (Phylum: Porifera).

181 Starfish, Sea Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, and Fireworms (Phylum: Echinodermata).

IV Eels and Lampreys.

182 Moray Eel (Superclass: Agnatha).

V Fish.

183 Bony Fish (Class: Osteichthyes).

184 Cartilaginous Fish (Class: Chondrichthyes).

VI Mammals.

185 Mammals.


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"Overall, this book would be a useful addition to the libraries of medical students, graduate students in pharmacology and toxicology, and natural products scientists. Furthermore, because of its "multidisciplinary evidence-based approach", the book presents an easy-to-follow and valuable resource for clinical toxicologists and analytical chemists, as well as those involved in the regulation of toxic substance exposure. It is a superb resource for a natural products clinical toxicology course." (Journal of Natural Products, 17 August 2011)

"[The book] provides in-depth, evidence based coverage of the most important natural toxins found in foods, fungi, medicinal herbs, plants and venimous animals." (Food Science and Technology Abstracts, July 2010)“This wonderful book covers an enormous subject with attention to detail and direct clinical relevance in a style that is surprisingly easy to read. The remaining volumes will be eagerly awaited by clinical toxicologists everywhere." (The Medical Journal of Australia, January 2010)

“This text provides a comprehensive guide to the medical toxicology of natural substances and is considered an excellent reference for forensic scientists including pathologists, toxicologists, criminalists, and scene investigators.” (Journal of Forensic Science, September 2009)

“Entries vary from single species to large groups; hence coverage is quite variable, though always informative. This volume will be useful for researchers and clinicians.” (CHOICE, October 2009)

Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances provides a reliable and easily accessible source on what is known about this topic.” (JAMA, July 2009)

"It should be a part of the library any scientist who deal wit natural products research, as well as toxicologists and pharmacologists. It should be a principle reference for poison control centers." (Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, published online March 26, 2009)

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