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Compressors and Modern Process Applications

ISBN: 978-0-471-72792-7
352 pages
September 2006
Compressors and Modern Process Applications (047172792X) cover image


A modern reference to the principles, operation, and applications of the most important compressor types

Thoroughly addressing process-related information and a wider variety of the major compressor types of interest to process plants, Compressors and Modern Process Applications uniquely covers the systematic linkage of fluid processing machinery to the processes they serve.

This book is a highly practical resource for professionals responsible for purchasing, servicing, or operating compressors. It describes the main features of over 300 petrochemical and refining schematics and associated process descriptions involving compressors and expanders in modern industry.

The organized presentation of this reference covers first the basics of compressors and what they are, and then progresses to important operational and process issues. It then explains the underlying principles, operating modes, selection issues, and major hardware elements for compressors. Topics include double-acting positive displacement compressors, rotary positive displacement compressors, understanding centrifugal process gas compressors, power transmission and advanced bearing technology, centrifugal compressor performance, gas processing and turbo-expander applications, and compressors typically found in petroleum refining and other petrochemical processes.

Suitable for plant operation personnel, machinery engineering specialists, process engineers,as well as undergraduate students of this subject, this book's special features include:
* Flow schematics of modern process units and processes used in gas transport, gas conditioning, petrochemical manufacture, and petroleum refining
* Listings of licensors for each process on the flow schematics
* Identification of each process flow schematic of compressors, cryogenic, and hot gas expanders at their respective locations
* Important overview of surge control, estimating compressor performance, applications for air separation and gas processing plants, petroleum refinery issues, and important criteria that govern compressor selection and application

Placing hundreds of associated process flow schematics at the fingertips of professionals and students, author and industry expert Heinz Bloch facilitates comprehension of the workings of various petrochemical, oil refining, and product upgrading processes that are served by compressors.
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Table of Contents


Illustration Credits and Photo Acknowledgments.


Chapter 1. Positive Displacement Compressors.

1.1 Reciprocating Compressors.

1.2 Major Components Described.

1.3 Comparison between Reciprocating and Centrifugal Compressors.

1.4 Series and Parallel Operation.

Chapter 2. Rotary Compressors as a Category.

2.1 Helical Screw Compressors.

2.2 Overview of Operating Principles and Basic Construction.

2.3 Considerations for Screw Compressor Staging.

2.4 Reasons for Using Screw Compressors.

2.5 Oil-Free Versus Oil-Flooded Twin-Screw Compressors.

2.6 Screw Compressor Volume Control.

2.7 Screw Compressor Auxiliaries.

2.8 Issues with H<sub>2</sub>S in All Gas Compressors.

2.9 Considerations for Upstream Separators.

Chapter 3. Understanding Centrifugal Process Gas Compressors.

3.1 Where Centrifugal Compressors Excel.

3.2 Centrifugal Compressors, Fans, or Blowers?

3.3 Centrifugal Compressor Configurations and Components.

Chapter 4. Power Transmission and Advanced Bearing Technology.

4.1 Couplings for Rotary Positive-Displacement and Centrifugal Compressors.

4.2 Magnetic Bearings for Compressor Rotors.

4.3 Externally Pressurized Bearings.

4.4 General Condition Monitoring of Process Gas Compressors.

4.5 Combining Troubleshooting and Continuous Monitoring of Dynamic Data for Critical Machinery.

Chapter 5. Centrifugal Compressor Performance.

5.1 Compression Processes and Efficiencies: Polytropic Versus Isothermal.

5.2 Specific Speed (N<sub>s</sub>) and the Flow Coefficient (&phi;).

5.3 Estimating Compressor Performance.

5.4 Controls.

5.5 Throughput Control Options.

Chapter 6. Testing.

6.1 Centrifugal Compressor Testing.

6.2 Types of Performance Tests.

6.3 The ASME Power Test Code (ASME PTC 10).

Chapter 7. Application Considerations.

7.1 Applications and Industry Sectors.

7.2 Air Separation Plants and Compressors for Instrument and Plant Air Services.

7.3 Natural Gas Processing Industry.

7.4 Offshore Industry.

7.5 Refining Industry.

7.6 Petrochemicals and Fertilizers.

7.7 Steel Industry.

7.8 Special Applications.

Chapter 8. Using API-617 as a Purchase Specification for Centrifugal Compressors.

8.1 Compressor Revamps.


Segment 1: Gas Processing.

Segment 2: Refining Processes.

Segment 3: Petrochemical Processes.



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Author Information

HEINZ P. BLOCH is a consulting engineer in Iowa and a licensed professional engineer in New Jersey and Texas. He served over twenty years in various machinery engineering capacities at Exxon and retired from his position as Exxon Chemical's Regional Machinery Specialist in the United States. Mr. Bloch has authored seventeen books and more than 340 papers and articles, conducted over 500 technical courses, helped found Texas A&M's International Pump Users Symposium, and served as an editor on Hydrocarbon Processing magazine, and as chairman of the yearly International Process and Power Plant Reliability Conference.

Arvind Godse is chartered Mechanical engineer with in -depth exposure to Rotating Machinery & association with leading organizations viz. Engineers India, Kuwait National Petroleum, Qatar Petroleum, PDO / TEBODIN Oman.

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