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Cost Estimating Manual for Water Treatment Facilities

ISBN: 978-0-471-72997-6
224 pages
September 2008
Cost Estimating Manual for Water Treatment Facilities (0471729973) cover image


NOTE TO THE READER: All forms and material that were previously on a CD-ROM that accompanied this book have been moved to the following web site: http://booksupport.wiley.com

Tested-and-proven techniques for quick, accurate estimates

Here is the first manual that guides engineers, planners, and contractors through the process of estimating the cost of building water treatment facilities. Based on more than eighty years of the two authors' collective experience, the Cost Estimating Manual for Water Treatment Facilities not only enables you to arrive at a dependable estimate, it shows you how to do it quickly with a minimum of information and supporting data.

In order to ensure reliability, the authors have compiled and analyzed the results from their own construction cost estimates for more than 500 projects as well as the results from many other engineers and contractors. The manual identifies forty-three treatment processes, nine types of water treatment plants, plus five additional types of advanced water treatment plants. The authors then demonstrate how to calculate costs for each element, accounting for needed mark-ups and allowances in order to arrive at the total plant construction cost.

To help you make your own estimates, the manual provides:

  • Examples of cost estimates for different water treatment processes
  • Historical data from several public agencies
  • Sample tables for 10 mgd and 100 mgd product water flow rates for each type of treatment plant
  • Website access with Excel spreadsheets that enable you to perform estimates using your own data

Now that the Cost Estimating Manual for Water Treatment Facilities is available, you no longer have to rely on hunches and anecdotal information; you have a proven, scientific method that leads to reliable estimates.

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Table of Contents


List of Illustrations.

Chapter 1. Introduction to Construction Cost Estimating.

1.1 Cost Estimating - Art or Science.

1.2 Structure of the Manual.

1.3 Rules of Thumb for Good Estimates.

1.4 Use of Historic Data.

1.5 Adjusting the Numbers.

Chapter 2. Water Treatment Processes.

2.1 Basic Plant Design Philosophy.

2.2 Brief Description of Basic Water Treatment.

2.3 Basic Conventional Water Treatment Processes.

2.4 Advanced Water Treatment Processes.

Chapter 3. Solids Handling and Disposal.

3.1. Solids Handling.

3.2. Sludge Thickening.

3.3. Sludge Dewatering and Drying.

Chapter 4. Construction Cost Estimating at Predesign.

4.1. Construction Cost Estimating.

4.2. Classes and Types of Cost Estimates.

4.3. Predesign Construction Cost Estimating.

4.4. Definition of Terms.

4.5. Estimating Methodology.

4.6. Capital Improvement Costs.

4.7. Operations and Maintenance Costs.

Chapter 5. Water Treatment Predesign Construction Costs.

5.1. Introduction.

5.2. Treatment Process and Cost Estimating Parameters.

5.3. Cost Curves.

5.4. Estimating Process and Total Facilities Cost.

5.5. Individual Treatment Processes.

5.5.1 Chlorine Storage and Feed from 150 lb to 1-ton Cylinders.

5.5.2 Chlorine Storage Tank and Feed with Rail Delivery.

5.5.3 Chlorine Direct Feed from Rail Car.

5.5.4 Ozone Generation.

5.5.5 Ozone Contact Chamber.

5.5.6 Liquid Alum Feed.

5.5.7 Dry Alum Feed.

5.5.8 Polymer Feed (Cationic).

5.5.9 Lime Feed.

5.5.10 Potassium Permanganate Feed.

5.5.11 Sulfuric Acid Feed.

5.5.12 Sodium Hydroxide Feed.

5.5.13 Ferric Chloride Feed.

5.5.14 Anhydrous Ammonia Feed.

5.5.15 Aqua Ammonia Feed.

5.5.16 Powdered Activated Carbon.

5.5.17 Rapid Mix G=300.

5.5.18 Rapid Mix G=600.

5.5.19 Rapid Mix G=900.

5.5.20 Flocculator G=20.

5.5.21 Flocculator G=50.

5.5.22 Flocculator G=80.

5.5.23 Circular Clarifier with10 ft Side Water Depth.

5.5.24 Rectangular Clarifier.

5.5.25 Gravity Filter Structure.

5.5.26 Filter Media - Stratified Sand.

5.5.27 Filter Media - Dual Media.

5.5.28 Filter media - Multi-Media.

5.5.29 Filter Backwash Pumping.

5.5.30 Surface Wash System - Hydraulic.

5.5.31 Air Scour Wash System.

5.5.32 Wash Water Surge Basin.

5.5.33 Filter Wash Waste Storage Tank.

5.5.34 Clearwell Water Storage - Below Ground.

5.5.35 Finished Water Pumping (TDH 100 FT).

5.5.36 Raw Water Pumping.

5.5.37 Gravity Sludge Thickener.

5.5.38 Sludge Dewatering Lagoons.

5.5.39 Sand Drying Beds.

5.5.40 Filter Press.

5.5.41 Belt Filter Press.

5.5.42 Centrifuge Facility.

5.5.43 Administration Laboratory and Maintenance Buildings.

5.6. Estimating Capital Costs.

5.7. Estimating Capital Costs of a Conventional Water Treatment Plant.

5.7.1 Two-Stage Filtration Plant.

5.7.2 Direct Filtration Plant.

5.7.3 Conventional Filtration Plant.

5.7.4 Dissolved Air Flotation Plant.

5.7.5 Lime and Soda Ash Filtration Plant.

5.7.6 Iron and Manganese Filtration Plant.

5.7.7 Micro Membrane Filtration Plant.

5.7.8 Direct Filtration with Pre-Ozone Filtration Plant.

5.7.9 Conventional Treatment with Ozonation and GAC Filtration.

5.8 Estimating the Cost of an Advanced Water Treatment Plants.

5.8.1 Reverse Osmosis (RO) Treatment Plant.

5.8.2 Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) Treatment Plant.

5.8.3 Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) Treatment Plant.

5.8.4 Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Distillation Treatment Plant.

5.8.5 Ultra-Filtration and Nano-Filtration.

Chapter 6. Operation & Maintenance Cost Impacts.

6.1 Annual Operating & Maintenance Cost Impacts.

6.2 O&M Cost Curves.

6.2.1a Two Stage Filtration.

6.2.1b Direct Filtration.

6.2.1c Conventional Treatment.

6.3.1a Dissolved Air Flotation.

6.3.1b Lime & Soda Ash Softening.

6.3.1c Iron Manganese Removal.

6.3.2a Micro Membrane Filtration.

6.3.2b Direct Filtration with Pre-Ozonation.

6.3.2c Conventional Treatment with Ozonation & GAC Filters.

6.4 Advanced Water Treatment - Seawater Desalination.

6.4.1 Reverse Osmosis Treatment.

6.4.2 Multi-Stage Flash.

6.4.3 Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) Treatment.

6.4.4 Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) Treatment.

6.4.5 Ultra-Filtration and Nano-Filtration.

Chapter 7. Future Water Supply, Treatment and Distribution.


Preface to the Appendices.

Appendix A - Detailed Treatment Plant Cost Tables.

A.1a Two Stage Filtration Process 10 MGD.

A.1b Two Stage Filtration Process 100 MGD.

A.2a Direct Filtration Process 10 MGD.

A.2b Direct Filtration Process 100 MGD.

A.3a Conventional Water Treatment Processes 10 MGD.

A.3b Conventional Water Treatment Processes 100 MGD.

A.4a Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) as Pretreatment Process 10 MGD.

A.4b Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) as Pretreatment Process 100 MGD.

A.5a Lime and Soda Ash Water Softening Process 10 MGD.

A.5b Lime and Soda Ash Water Softening Process 100 MGD.

A.6a Iron and Manganese Removal Process 10 MGD.

A.6b Iron and Manganese Removal Process 100 MGD.

A.7a Micro Membrane Filtration Process 10 MGD.

A.7b Micro Membrane Filtration Process 100 MGD.

A.8a Direct Filtration with Pre-Ozonation 10 MGD.

A.8b Direct Filtration with Pre-Ozonation 100 MGD.

A.9a Conventional Treatment Process with Ozonation and GAC Filters 10 MGD.

A.9b Conventional Treatment Process with Ozonation and GAC Filters 100 MGD.




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Author Information

WILLIAM T. McGIVNEY, MS Resource Economics, is Principal Vice President for Professional Services at DRMcNatty & Associates, Inc. He has more than thirty years of experience in construction project management as a chief estimator, construction services manager, project controls manager, and contractor. He has taught at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, under the ABET program, which invites industry leaders to share their professional experience with students. Mr. McGivney has also assisted government agencies in the United States, as well as the Philippines, Egypt, Argentina, and Australia.

SUSUMU KAWAMURA, PhD, PE, is President of Kawamura Water Engineering, Inc. Dr. Kawamura has close to five decades of experience in every facet of water treatment facility design and operation. He has been involved in over 120 projects and is the author of more than ninety technical publications, as well as five books in three languages, including Integrated Design and Operation of Water Treatment Facilities, Second Edition (Wiley). He is a registered professional engineer in five states (Arizona, California, Nevada, Ohio, and Utah) as well as Japan. Dr. Kawamura taught graduate courses at University of Southern California for fifteen years starting in 1980. He was inducted into the AWWA Water Industry Hall of Fame in 2008.

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