# The Site Calculations Pocket Reference, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-471-73002-6
512 pages
March 2006

## Description

The revised field companion for construction, recreation department, and landscape professionals

Put it in your pocket and go!

For the busy professional working on-site--this updated, handy pocket reference puts all the formulas and calculations you need at your fingertips. Now with a convenient, lay-flat comb binding, this book is invaluable for all areas of general site construction. It gives you fast access to the information you want--when you want it--complete with real-world examples.

This revised Second Edition features a new chapter on sports fields that includes descriptions and schematics for more than forty different fields. It also provides the latest information on:
* Earthworks and materials
* Drainage, sewers, and irrigation
* Grassing, landscaping, and ground covers
* Temperature, area, and time measurement
* Units of weight and measure
* Map and surveyor information
* Worldwide weather data
* Metric conversions
* And more
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Section 1 Earthworks and Materials.

1.1 Soils—Angles of Repose 2

1.2 Volume of Sand or Gravel in a Stockpile 2

1.3 Approximate Swelling Factors for Various Soil Types 3

1.4 Approximate Shrinkage Factors for Various Soil Types 3

1.5 Soil Permeability 3

1.6 Water Retention for Various Soils 4

1.7 Weights of Materials 4

1.8 Water-Holding Estimates of a Variety of Soils 5

1.9 Triangle of Physical Characteristics of Various Soils 6

1.10 Estimated Runoff Volume from a 24-Hour, 7-Inch Rain Event 6

1.11 Average Soil Infiltration Rates for Various Soils by Percent of Slope 7

1.12 Computation for Volume of Excavated Material (English) 7

1.13 Computation for Volume of Excavated Material (Metric) 8

1.14 Computation of Materials Volume from Trench Excavation (English) 9

1.15 Computation of Materials Volume from Trench Excavation (Metric) 9

1.16 Angles of Slopes 10

1.17 Slope Measurement Plan (Horizontal) to True Measure 10

1.19 Safe Limit Restrictions (General Guide) 11

1.20 Soil Coverage 12

1.21 Top Dressing (English) 13

1.22 Top Dressing (Metric) 13

1.23 Practical Examples of Specialized Small Areas of Fill (Sand Trap) 14

1.24 Calculation of Area of an Odd-Shaped Area 15

1.25 Calculation of Fill Materials for an Odd-Shaped Area (Golf Green) 16

1.26 Chart of Volumes by Area 17

Section 2 Drainage

2.1 Manning’s “n” Value for Design 20

2.2 Circular Pipe Flow Capacity (Double Wall—Smooth) 21

2.3 Circular Pipe Flow Capacity (Single Wall—Spiral).

2.4 Pipe Size Conversion (Drainage) English to Metric 23

2.5 Example of Circular Pipe Flow Capacity Calculation 23

2.6 Diagram for Pipe Flow Capacity Calculation 24

2.7 Drainage Calculation: Water Quantity by Area 25

2.8 Pipe Conversion Factors (Natural Gas, Irrigation, Drainage, etc.) 26

Section 3 Irrigation,Water Supply, and Materials.

3.1 Pipe Data Introduction.

3.2 Lake Lining Calculation.

3.3 Pressure Loss from Friction per 100 Ft. of Pipe (Pounds per Square Inch).

3.4 Pressure Conversion Chart PSI-Kg/Cm-BAR.

3.5 Pipe Conversion Factors.

3.6 Velocity of Flow (Feet per Second).

3.7 Surge Pressures and Water Hammer.

3.8 Comparative Flow Capacities for Pipe.

3.9 Uniformity and Efficiency.

3.10 Uniformity Coefficient.

3.11 System Distribution Uniformity.

3.12 Efficiencies.

3.13 Designing Irrigation System Capabilities.

3.14 The Soil Reservoir.

3.15 Natural Water Loss.

3.16 Guides to Determining ET Rate.

3.17 Minimizing System Losses.

3.18 Other Considerations.

3.19 Irrigation Water Requirements.

3.20 Scheduling Procedures.

3.21 Summary.

3.22 Sprinkler Spacing.

3.23 Precipitation Rate Formulas.

3.24 Sprinkler Efficiency and Spacing under Certain Conditions.

3.25 Approximate Number of Sprinklers per Acre.

3.26 Example—How to Determine Pipe Size per Requirement.

3.27 Pump Definitions.

3.28 Practical Suction Lifts at Various Elevations.

3.29 Pump Cost and Efficiency Data.

3.30 Cost of Pumping Water per 1,000 U.S. Gallons Pumped.

3.31 Cost per Hour of Pumping under Continuous Conditions.

3.32 Formula for Figuring Efficiency of Pump.

3.33 Formula for Determining Pump Horsepower.

3.34 Pump Calculation: Size for Duty.

3.35 Miscellaneous Irrigation Data.

3.36 Example— Irrigation System Design for Sports Fields.

3.37 Materials for Sprinkler Systems.

3.38 Maintenance Procedure for Irrigation System.

3.39 Winterization in Southern Climates.

3.40 Winterization in Northern Climates.

3.41 Spring Start-Up.

3.42 Electrical Table for Single-Phase Irrigation Wiring.

3.43 Electrical Table for Basic Three-Phase Irrigation Wiring.

3.44 Voltage Loss for Various Wire Sizes per 100 Ft. of Copper Wire.

3.45 Wire Sizing Calculation Form.

3.46 American to Metric Cable Size Conversion.

Section 4 Concrete, Retaining Walls, Streets, and Weir Structures.

4.1 Approximate Weights of Materials Required per Cubic Yard of Concrete.

4.2 Approximate Weights of Materials Required per Cubic Yard of Concrete.

4.3 Approximate Weights of Materials Required per Cubic Yard of Concrete.

4.4 Approximate Weights of Materials Required per Cubic Yard of Concrete.

4.5 Quantities of Portland Cement for Concrete.

4.6 Materials for Concrete per Cubic Yard.

4.7 Quantities: Concrete for Footings.

4.8 Concrete Surface Coverage per Cubic Yard.

4.9 Reinforcing Steel Requirements for Concrete.

4.10 Concrete Mixer—Average Output in Cubic Yards per Hour.

4.11 Properties of Plywood Forming.

4.12 Allowable Stresses for Formwork Lumber.

4.13 Approximate Board Foot Content of Sawed Railroad Ties.

4.14 Calculations for Retaining Walls— Cubic Yards per Area by Depth.

4.15 Recommended Guidelines for Subdivision or City Street Construction.

4.17 Discharge from Rectangular Notch Weirs with End Contractions.

4.18 Discharge from Triangular Notch Weirs with End Contractions.

Section 5 Grassing, Landscaping, Fertilization, and Ground Covers.

5.1 Turfgrasses Stolonization—What is a Bushel?

5.2 What Does “Certified” Mean?

5.3 Ornamental Grasses.

5.4 Recommended Seeding Rates of Some Grasses.

5.5 Characteristics of Some Turfgrasses.

5.6 Coverage Area per Bale of Bean Straw.

5.7 Grass Stolons: Distribution Rate by Means of Sprigging.

5.8 Grass Stolons: Quantities Required for Broadcast Distribution.

5.9 Coverage Areas for Turf and Other Ground Covers via Plugs.

5.10 Fertilization (Nitrogen Requirements).

5.11 Coverage Area per Flat of Ground Covers Square Feet per Flat.

5.12 Liners and Hedge Plants: Plants Required per 100 Lin. Ft.

5.13 Plants Required per 100 SF: Various Spacings.

5.14 Flats of Plants Required per 100 SF: Various Spacings and Various Quantities per Flat.

5.15 Number of Shrubs or Plants for an Acre at Various Spacings.

5.16 Peat Moss Coverage: Depth in Inches per Square Surface Footage.

5.17 Steer Manure Coverage: Depth in Inches per Square Surface Footage.

5.18 Steer Manure: Rates per Acre Based on Required Rates per 1,000 SF.

5.19 Nursery Container Stock: Approximate Backfill Volume for Various Container Stock: Round Plant Pits, Vertical Sides.

5.20 Nursery Container Stock: Volume of Excavated Soil Resulting from Multiple Plantings: Square Planting Pits.

5.21 Nursery Container Stock: Approximate Backfill Volume for Various Container Stock Square Plant Pits, Vertical Sides.

5.22 Nursery Container Stock.

5.23 Tree Pit Excavation for Nursery Container Stock Square Pits, Vertical Sides.

5.24 Tree Pit Excavation for Nursery Container Stock Round Pits, Vertical Sides.

5.25 Nursery Container Stock: Volume of Excavated Soil Resulting from Multiple Plantings: Round Plant Pits.

5.26 Suggested Planting Distances for Some Fruit Trees.

5.27 Tree Cabling Material Combinations.

5.28 Hydroseeders: Area Coverage per Load.

5.29 Hydroseeder Coverage Using Seed, Fertilizer, and Mulch.

5.30 Hydroseeder Coverage Using Seed and Fertilizer Only.

5.31 Usage Rates for a Combination of Organic and Synthetic Products.

5.32 Usage Rates for Synthetic Fiber Bond.

5.33 Usage Rates for Gum-Based Organic Tackifier.

5.34 Seed Facts for Native Prairie Grasses and Legumes: Cool Season.

5.35 Seed Facts for Native Prairie Grasses and Legumes: Warm Season.

5.36 Seed Facts for Legumes.

5.37 Seed Facts for Cool-Season Turfgrasses.

5.38 Seed Facts for Warm-Season Foragegrasses.

5.39 Plant Hardiness Zones.

5.40 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map.

5.42 Ornamental Shrubs.

5.43 Fruit Trees.

5.44 Nut Trees.

5.45 Conifers.

Section 6 Sports Fields.

6.1 Field Spaces.

6.2 Tolerances for Selecting the Best Turfgrass for Your Needs (Cool and Warm Season).

6.3 Types of Field Turf.

6.4 Lighting.

6.5 Drainage.

6.6 Irrigation.

6.7 Sports Field Space Requirements (General).

6.8 Archery.

6.9 Athletics (Track and Field) Field Events.

6.10 Athletics (Track and Field) Track Events.

6.12 Baseball.

6.14 Indoor and Lawn Bowls and Boules (Bocce/Petanque).

6.15 Boxing (International).

6.16 Cricket (Outdoor and Indoor).

6.17 Croquet.

6.18 Equestrian.

6.19 Fencing.

6.21 Football (Aussie Rules).

6.22 Football (Gaelic).

6.23 Football (Rugby League).

6.24 Football (Rugby Union).

6.25 Football (Association Soccer).

6.26 Handball.

6.27 Horseshoes.

6.28 Hockey (Field).

6.29 Hockey (Indoor).

6.30 Hurling (Men’s).

6.31 Lacrosse (Men’s).

6.32 Lacrosse (Women’s).

6.33 Netball.

6.34 Polo.

6.35 Shuffleboard.

6.36 Softball.

6.37 Squash Rackets.

6.39 Tennis (Platform).

6.40 Tennis.

6.41 Volleyball.

Section 7 General Information.

7.1 Temperature Conversion.

7.2 Angular and Circular Measure.

7.3 Measurement of Time.

7.4 Measurement of Time: Converting Minutes to Decimal Hours.

7.5 Converting Inches and Fractions to Decimal Parts of a Foot.

7.6 Decimal Equivalents Table.

7.7 Circumferences and Areas of Circles.

7.8 Units of Length.

7.9 Units of Area.

7.10 Units of Length (Metric).

7.11 Units of Area (Metric).

7.12 Square Tracts of Land (English).

7.13 Area Conversion: Square Feet to Equivalent Acreage.

7.14 Area Conversion: Acres to Equivalent Square Footage.

7.15 Converting Miles to Kilometers and Kilometers to Miles.

7.16 Converting Feet to Meters and Meters to Feet.

7.17 Converting Inches to Centimeters and Centimeters to Inches.

7.18 Measurement of Area Conversions: English System to Metric System.

7.19 Measurement of Area Conversions: Metric System to English System.

7.20 Measurement of Volume Conversions: English System to Metric System.

7.21 Units of Weight (Metric).

7.22 Units of Volume (English).

7.23 Units of Volume (English): Conversions.

7.24 Units of Cubic Measure (Metric).

7.25 Units of Weight (English).

7.26 Units of Weight Conversions: English System to Metric System.

7.27 Units of Volume (English): Conversions.

7.28 Units of Dry Measure.

7.29 Units of Dry Measure: Conversions.

7.30 Dry Materials: Conversion Use for Small Areas.

7.31 Units of Liquid Measure.

7.32 Units of Liquid Measure: Conversions.

7.33 Units of Liquid Measure (Metric).

7.34 Units of Liquid Measure: Weight Equivalents.

7.35 Units of Water Measurement and Equivalencies.

7.36 Units of Liquid Measure Equivalencies: Gallons/Pounds/Cubic Feet.

7.37 Capacity of Square Pools per Foot of Depth.

7.38 Capacity of Rectangular Pools per Foot of Depth.

7.39 Capacity of Round Pools per Foot of Depth.

7.40 Liquid Materials: Conversions for Use for Small Areas.

7.41 Volumes Based on Areas of Water by Depth (Cu./Yds.).

7.42 Calculation of Volume Based on Area of Water by Depth.

7.43 Conversion Table for U.S. and Metric Systems.

7.44 USGA Sand Specification.

7.45 Equipment Amortization Table.

7.46 Simple Interest Table.

7.47 30 Days Interest Table.

7.48 World Time Zone Map.

Section 8 Formulas for Areas and Volumes of Various Geometric Figures.

8.1 Rectangle.

8.2 Parallelogram.

8.3 Trapezoid.

8.4 Rectangular Prism.

8.5 Any Prism.

8.6 Pyramid.

8.7 Right Triangle.

8.8 Any Triangle.

8.9 Regular Polygon.

8.10 Any Cylinder.

8.11 Any Cone and Frustum of Any Cone.

8.12 Ellipse.

8.13 Circle.

8.14 Sector of a Circle.

8.15 Segment of a Circle.

Section 9 Map and Surveyor Information.

9.1 Scale Equivalents: Scale 1/16" to 1'.

9.2 Scale Equivalents: Scales 1" to 10'/1" to 80'.

9.3 Scale Equivalents: Scales 1"/100' to 1"/1,000'.

9.4 Scale Equivalents: Scales 1" = 50' to 1" = 10 miles.

9.5 Slope Stake.

9.6 Stadia Correction and Horizontal Distances.

9.7 Chains to Feet and Feet to Chains Conversions.

9.8 Trigonometric Formulas.

9.9 Reduction to Horizontal.

9.10 Natural Trigonometrical Functions.

9.11 Curve Table.

9.12 Tangents and Externals to a 1-Degree Curve.

9.13 Useful Relations.

9.14 Square Measure and Surveyor’s Measure.

9.15 Inches to Decimals of a Foot.

9.16 Minutes in Decimals of a Degree.

9.17 Middle Ordinates of Length of Rail (Feet).

9.19 Rods in Feet, Tenths, and Hundredths of Feet.

9.20 Links in Feet, Tenths, and Hundredths of Feet.

9.21 Inches in Decimals of a Foot.

9.22 Curve Formulas.

9.23 Table of Powers and Roots (1–100).

9.24 Square Roots and Cube Roots (1,000–2,000).

Section 10 Sanitary Sewers.

10.1 Separation Distances.

10.2 Minimum Separation between Sanitary Facilities and Other Features.

10.4 Intermittent Stream Effluent Limits.

10.5 Minimum Size of Sewer Appurtenances.

10.6 Recommended Hazen-Williams Coefficients for Sewer Pipe.

10.7 System Pressures and Pump Types.

10.8 Septic Tanks.

10.9 Estimating the Size Grease Trap for Restaurants and Hospitals.

10.10 Buried Filters.

10.11 Open Filters—Single Pass.

10.12 Filter Media.

10.13 Recommended Sewage Application Rates.

10.14 Site Criteria for Mounds.

10.15 Allowable Lateral Lengths (Ft.).

10.16 Sidewall Areas of Circular Seepage Pits.

10.18 Conversion Factors.

10.19 Mound Design Example.

Section 11 Worldwide Weather Conditions.

11.1 Temperature Distribution.

11.2 Distribution of Precipitation.

11.3 North America.

11.4 South America.

11.5 Europe.

11.6 Asia.

11.7 Africa.

11.8 Australia.

11.9 Temperature Data for Representative Worldwide Stations.

11.10 Precipitation Data for Representative Worldwide Stations.

11.11 Worldwide Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation.

Appendix Miscellaneous Conversion Factors.

Index.

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## Author Information

Ed Hannan is a construction project manager and golf course designer who has worked throughout the United States, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.
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