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Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms

ISBN: 978-0-471-73093-4
273 pages
March 2007
Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms (0471730939) cover image
Investigation techniques and analytical methodologies for addressing microbial contamination indoors

Microbial contamination indoors is a significant environmental and occupational health and safety problem. This book provides fundamental background information on fungal and bacterial growth indoors as well as in-depth, practical approaches to analyzing and remedying problems. The information helps investigators, laboratory managers, and environmental health professionals properly use state-of-the-science methods and correctly interpret the results. With chapters by expert microbiologists, mycologists, environmental professionals, and industrial hygienists, Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms is a multidisciplinary, comprehensive reference on advanced approaches, covering:

  • Microbiological problems in a water-damaged environment
  • Indoor construction techniques and materials that impact environmental microbiology
  • Microbial ecology indoors, airborne bacteria, genetic-based analytical methods, and statistical tools for microorganism analysis
  • Microbiological sampling approaches
  • Mold removal principles and methods, including specialized microbial remediation techniques for HVAC systems, legionellas and biofilms, and sewage contamination
  • A forensic approach toward the assessment of fungal growth in the indoor environment

A must-have guide for practicing professionals, including environmental health and safety personnel, public health officials, and building and construction engineers and architects, this is also a valuable reference for attorneys, home inspectors, water restoration personnel, mold remediation contractors, insurance adjusters, and others.

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PREFACE.

CONTRIBUTORS.

1. INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGICAL GROWTH AND CONTAMINATION INDOORS (Chin S. Yang and Patricia A. Heinsohn).

1.1. Introduction.

1.2. Health Effects of Indoor Fungal and Bacterial Growth.

1.3. Team and Individual Expertise.

1.4. Approach of This Book.

1.5. Conclusion.

2. CONDUCTING BUILDING MOLD INVESTIGATIONS (Patricia A. Heinsohn).

2.1. Introduction.

2.2. Baseline Investigation.

2.2.1. Physical Inspection.

2.2.1.1. Visual Inspection.

2.2.1.2. Documentation.

2.2.1.3. Moisture and Moisture Mapping.

2.2.2. Sampling Design.

2.2.2.1. Air Sampling Methods.

2.2.2.2. Selection of Air Sampling Instruments.

2.2.2.3. Air Sampling Flowrate, Pump Calibration, and Sampling Duration.

2.2.2.4. Number of Indoor and Outdoor Air Samples, Air Sampling Locations, and Order of Sampling.

2.2.2.5. Sampling Techniques.

2.2.2.6. Surface Sampling Techniques and Analysis.

2.2.2.7. Laboratory Selection.

2.2.2.8. Prior Notification.

2.3. Destructive Testing Investigation.

2.4. Sampling during Mold Remediation Oversight and Clearance.

2.5. Conclusions.

3. MICROBIOLOGICAL SAMPLING STRATEGIES IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS (Philip R. Morey).

3.1. Introduction.

3.2. Sampling Strategy.

3.3. Spatial or Location Variables.

3.4. Temporal (Time) Variables.

3.5. Indoor/Outdoor Comparisons.

3.6. Complaint and Noncomplaint Zones.

3.7. Source and Air Samples.

3.8. Bulk Samples.

3.9. Dust Samples.

3.10. Surface Sampling.

3.11. Culture Plate Impactions and Liquid Impingers.

3.12. Spore Trap Samplers.

3.13. Sampling by Filtration.

3.14. Conclusions.

4. MICROSCOPIC ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR FUNGI (De-Wei Li, Chin S. Yang, and F. Harrington).

4.1. Introduction.

4.2. Principles and Usage of Microscopes.

4.2.1. Microscopes.

4.2.2. Microscope Objectives.

4.2.3. Photomicrographic Accessories.

4.3. Aseptic Technique and Biosafety.

4.4. Sample Preparation for Spore Count.

4.5. Materials Needed for Preparing Samples.

4.6. Staining and Mounting Techniques.

4.7. Procedures for Identification and Quantification of Spore Traps.

4.8. Techniques for Spore Count Analysis.

4.9. Background Particulates (Nonspore Miscellaneous Materials).

4.10. Limits of Detection.

4.11. Data Presentation.

4.12. Variation of Replications and Duplications.

4.13. Sample Preparation for Direct Examination or from Cultures.

4.13.1. Bulk Samples.

4.13.2. Bulk Dust Samples.

4.13.3. Swab Samples.

4.13.4. Tape Lift Samples.

4.13.5. Culture Samples.

4.14. Evaluation of Fungal Infestation.

4.15. Training of Microscopy Analysts.

4.16. Quality Assurance/Quality Control Procedures.

4.17. WEB Resources.

5. CULTURE-BASED ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR INVESTIGATION OF INDOOR FUNGI (Florence Q. Wu).

5.1. Advantages and Limitations of Culture-Based Analytical Methods.

5.2. Factors Influencing the Results of Culture-Based Analysis.

5.2.1. Ecological Considerations.

5.2.2. Viability of Fungal Spores.

5.2.3. Selection of Culture Media.

5.2.4. Concentration Variations.

5.2.5. Sampler Performance, Sampling Time, and Culture Preparation.

5.2.6. Experience of the Analyst.

5.3. Culturable Sampling Considerations.

5.3.1. Air Samples.

5.3.2. Surface Samples.

5.3.3. Bulk Samples.

5.3.4. Dust Samples.

5.4. Sample Preparation Methods.

5.5. Identification of Filamentous Fungi.

5.6. Data Reporting.

5.7. Data Interpretation.

5.8. Laboratory Quality Assurance.

6. AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS (Linda D. Stetzenbach).

6.1. Introduction.

6.2. Bacterial Aerosols.

6.3. Selected Bacteria-Associated Health Effects.

6.4. Analysis of Samples for Airborne Bacteria.

6.5. Summary.

7. GENETICS-BASED ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT (Richard A. Haugland and Stephen J. Vesper).

7.1. Introduction.

7.2. Genetics-Based Analytical Techniques.

7.2.1. In Vitro Nucleic Acid Amplification.

7.2.2. Hybridization Probes.

7.2.3. Nucleic Acid Sequencing.

7.2.4. Microbial Strain Typing.

7.3. Applications of Genetics-based Methods for Indoor Microbiological Analyses.

7.3.1. Detection of Pathogenic, Allergenic, and Toxigenic Bacteria and Fungi Using Nucleic Amplification and Hybridization Probe Techniques.

7.3.2. Microbial Strain Typing and Identification by Nucleic Acid Sequencing.

7.4. Quality Control/Quality Assurance and other Challenges.

7.5. Outlook for the Future.

8. WOOD IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT—CONDITIONS FOR MOLD AND DECAY (Susan E. Anagnost).

8.1. Introduction.

8.2. Molds and Wood Decay Fungi.

8.3. Moisture Requirements for Growth of Molds and Wood Decay Fungi.

8.4. Water and Wood—Relative Humidity versus Moisture Content.

8.4.1. Wood Moisture Content and the Fiber Saturation Point.

8.5. Moisture Requirements for Fungal Growth.

8.5.1. Moisture Requirements for Wood Decay Fungi.

8.5.2. Moisture Requirements for Mold Fungi.

8.6. The Effect of Changing Moisture and Temperature Conditions.

8.7. Susceptibility of Building Materials to Mold.

8.7.1. Visible versus Concealed Mold.

8.8. The Effects of Building Design and Construction.

8.9. Techniques for Assessment of Wood Decay and Mold in Buildings.

8.9.1. Nondestructive Testing.

8.9.2. Destructive Testing.

8.10. Summary.

9. USE OF STATISTICAL TOOLS FOR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF INDOOR MICROORGANISMS (Stella M. Tsai).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Descriptive Analysis.

9.3 Correlation.

9.4 t-test and Nonparametric Methods.

9.4.1. Using t-test to Test Differences between Two Means (Two Groups of Samples).

9.4.2. Nonparametric Test for Two Groups of Samples.

9.5 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Chi-Square Statistics.

9.6 Discussion.

10. ECOLOGY OF FUNGI IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT (Chin S. Yang and De-Wei Li).

10.1. Introduction.

10.2. Factors Affecting Fungal Growth Indoors.

10.2.1. Biotic Factors.

10.2.2. Abiotic Factors.

10.2.3. Interactions Between Temperature, Moisture, and Fungi Indoors.

10.3. Ecological Interactions Between Fungi and Environmental Factors.

10.3.1. Indoor Fungal Ecology.

10.3.2. Specific Ecological Niche of Some Common Indoor Fungi.

10.4. Release and Dispersal of Fungal Spores.

10.4.1. Fungal Spore Types and Their Release.

10.4.2. Fungal Spore Dispersal.

10.5. Conclusions.

11. A RETROSPECTIVE AND FORENSIC APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT OF FUNGAL GROWTH IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT (Chin S. Yang).

11.1. Introduction.

11.2. Microbial Forensics.

11.3. Rationales and Mycological Backgrounds.

11.4. Other Signs and Information.

11.5. Case Studies.

11.6. Conclusions.

12. MICROBIAL REMEDIATION IN NONINDUSTRIAL INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS (Philip R. Morey).

12.1. Introduction.

12.2. Mold Remediation Principles.

12.3. Mold Removal Methods.

12.4. Dust Control during Mold Remediation.

12.5. Air Sampling for Molds.

12.6. Clearance by Measurement of Residual Dust.

12.7. HVAC System Mold Remediation.

12.8. Remediation of Room Contents in Moldy Buildings.

12.9. Quality Assurance during Mold Remediation.

12.10. Microbial Remediation of Legionellas and Biofilms.

12.11. Remediation of Sewage Contamination.

APPENDIX COMMON AIRBORNE AND INDOOR FUNGI AND THEIR SPORES (De-Wei Li).

INDEX.

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CHIN S. YANG, editor, has almost two decades' experience as a consultant and scientist in air quality, industrial hygiene, and environmental health. He is the author of numerous scientific publications and presentations.

PATRICIA HEINSOHN, editor, works for MicroBios and is a member of the American Industrial Hygiene Association.

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"Provides a comprehensive, reasonably-priced, up-to-date and practical guide and reference source for a wide range of professionals." (Microbiology Today, March 2008)
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