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Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications

Norman N Li (Editor), Anthony G. Fane (Editor), W. S. Winston Ho (Editor), Takeshi Matsuura (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-471-73167-2
1016 pages
September 2008
Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications (0471731676) cover image
Advanced membranes-from fundamentals and membrane chemistry to manufacturing and applications

A hands-on reference for practicing professionals, Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications covers the fundamental principles and theories of separation and purification by membranes, the important membrane processes and systems, and major industrial applications. It goes far beyond the basics to address the formulation and industrial manufacture of membranes and applications.

This practical guide:

  • Includes coverage of all the major types of membranes: ultrafiltration; microfiltration; nanofiltration; reverse osmosis (including the recent high-flux and low-pressure membranes and anti-fouling membranes); membranes for gas separations; and membranes for fuel cell uses
  • Addresses six major topics: membranes and applications in water and wastewater; membranes for biotechnology and chemical/biomedical applications; gas separations; membrane contractors and reactors; environmental and energy applications; and membrane materials and characterization
  • Includes discussions of important strategic issues and the future of membrane technology
With chapters contributed by leading experts in their specific areas and a practical focus, this is the definitive reference for professionals in industrial manufacturing and separations and research and development; practitioners in the manufacture and applications of membranes; scientists in water treatment, pharmaceutical, food, and fuel cell processing industries; process engineers; and others. It is also an excellent resource for researchers in industry and academia and graduate students taking courses in separations and membranes and related fields.
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PREFACE xv

ABOUT THE EDITORS xvii

CONTRIBUTORS xix

PART I MEMBRANES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER 1

1. Thin-Film Composite Membranes for Reverse Osmosis 3
Tadahiro Uemura and Masahiro Henmi

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Application of RO Membranes 3

1.3 Major Progress in RO Membranes 4

1.4 Trends in RO Membrane Technology 6

1.5 Reverse Osmosis/Biofouling Protection 13

1.6 Low-Fouling RO Membrane for Wastewater Reclamation 14

1.7 Chlorine Tolerance of Cross-Linked Aromatic Polyamide Membrane 17

2. Cellulose Triacetate Membranes for Reverse Osmosis 21
A. Kumano and N. Fujiwara

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 History of Cellulose Acetate Membrane 21

2.3 Toyobo RO Module for Seawater Desalination 22

2.4 Actual Performance of Toyobo RO Module for Seawater Desalination 28

2.5 Most Recent RO Module of Cellulose Triacetate 35

2.6 Conclusion 43

3. Seawater Desalination 47
Nikolay Voutchkov and Raphael Semiat

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Seawater Desalination Plant Configuration 50

3.3 Water Production Costs 82

3.4 Future Trends 84

3.5 Conclusion 85

4. Seawater Desalination by Ultralow-Energy Reverse Osmosis 87
R. L. Truby

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 SWRO Energy Reduction Using Energy Recovery Technology 88

4.3 SWRO Energy Optimization 95

4.4 Affordable Desalination Collaboration (ADC) 96

4.5 Conclusion 99

5. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration 101
N. Kubota, T. Hashimoto, and Y. Mori

5.1 Introduction 101

5.2 Recent Trends and Progress in MF/UF Technology 104

5.3 Future Prospects 127

6. Water Treatment by Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration 131
M. D. Kennedy, J. Kamanyi, S. G. Salinas Rodrı´guez, N. H. Lee, J. C. Schippers, and G. Amy

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 Materials, Module Configurations, and Manufacturers 133

6.3 Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration Pretreatment 142

6.4 Membrane Applications 146

6.5 Membrane Fouling and Cleaning 149

6.6 Integrated Membrane Systems (MF or UF þ RO or NF) 160

6.7 Backwash Water Reuse, Treatment, and Disposal 164

7. Water Reclamation and Desalination by Membranes 171
Pierre Cote, Mingang Liu, and Steven Siverns

7.1 Introduction 171

7.2 Water Reclamation and Seawater Desalination 172

7.3 Cost Estimation 173

7.4 Process Options for Water Reclamation 174

7.5 Cost of Water Reclamation 177

7.6 Process Options for Desalination 181

7.7 Cost of Desalination 181

7.8 Water Reuse versus Desalination 185

7.9 Conclusions 186

8. Chitosan Membranes with Nanoparticles for Remediation of Chlorinated Organics 189
Yit-Hong Tee and Dibakar Bhattacharyya

8.1 Introduction 189

8.2 Experimental Section 191

8.3 Results and Discussions 197

8.4 Conclusions 212

9. Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment 217
P. Cornel and S. Krause

9.1 Introduction 217

9.2 Principle of the Membrane Bioreactor Process 217

9.3 MBR Design Considerations 230

9.4 Applications and Cost 233

9.5 Conclusions and Summary 235

10. Submerged Membranes 239
Anthony G. Fane

10.1 Introduction 239

10.2 Modes of Operation of Submerged Membranes 241

10.3 Submerged Membrane Module Geometries 246

10.4 Bubbling and Hydrodynamic Considerations 253

10.5 Practical Aspects 262

10.6 Applications 267

10.7 Conclusions 268

11. Nanofiltration 271
Bart Van der Bruggen and Jeroen Geens

11.1 Introduction 271

11.2 Process Principles 272

11.3 Application of Nanofiltration for Production of Drinking Water and Process Water 276

11.4 Wastewater Polishing and Water Reuse 280

11.5 Other Applications 283

11.6 Solvent-Resistant Nanofiltration 284

11.7 Conclusions 287

12. Membrane Distillation 297
Mohamed Khayet

12.1 Introduction to Membrane Distillation 297

12.2 Membrane Distillation Membranes and Modules 305

12.3 Membrane Distillation Membrane Characterization Techniques 320

12.4 Transport Mechanisms in MD: Temperature Polarization, Concentration Polarization, and Theoretical Models 331

12.5 Membrane Distillation Applications 341

12.6 Long-Term MD Performance and Membrane Fouling in MD 355

12.7 Hybrid MD Systems 356

12.8 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions in MD 357

13. Ultrapure Water by Membranes 371
Avijit Dey

13.1 Introduction 371

13.2 Integrated Membrane Technology in UPW Systems 377

PART II MEMBRANES FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND CHEMICAL/BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 407

14. Tissue Engineering with Membranes 409
Zhanfeng Cui

14.1 Introduction 409

14.2 Hollow-Fiber Membrane Bioreactors for Three-Dimensional Tissue Culture 412

14.3 Micromembrane Probes for Tissue Engineering Monitoring 420

14.4 Future Opportunities 427

14.5 Summary 429

15. Biopharmaceutical Separations by Ultrafiltration 435
Raja Ghosh

15.1 Introduction 435

15.2 Ultrafiltration: An Overview 436

15.3 Basic Working Principles of Ultrafiltration 437

15.4 Ultrafiltration Membranes and Devices 438

15.5 Ultrafiltration Processes 446

15.6 Conclusion 449

16. Nanofiltration in Organic Solvents 451
P. Silva, L. G. Peeva, and A. G. Livingston

16.1 Organic Solvent Nanofiltration Membranes 451

16.2 OSN Transport Mechanisms—Theoretical Background 458

16.3 Applications of Organic Solvent Nanofiltration 461

17. Pervaporation 469
Fakhir U. Baig

17.1 Introduction 469

17.2 Applications of AZEO SEP and VOC SEP 471

17.3 Computer Simulation of Module Performance 475

17.4 Permeation and Separation Model in Hollow-Fiber Membrane Module 481

17.5 Conclusion 487

18. Biomedical Applications of Membranes 489
G. Catapano and J. Vienken

18.1 Introduction 489

18.2 Membrane Therapeutic Treatments 490

18.3 Medical Membrane Properties 496

18.4 Medical Membrane Materials 501

18.5 Biocompatibility of Membrane-Based Therapeutic Treatments 508

18.6 Conclusions 511

19. Hemodialysis Membranes 519
Norma J. Ofsthun, Sujatha Karoor, and Mitsuru Suzuki

19.1 Introduction 519

19.2 Transport Requirements 521

19.3 Other Requirements 525

19.4 Membrane Materials, Spinning Technology, and Structure 527

19.5 Dialyzer Design and Performance 530

19.6 Current Market Trends 533

19.7 Future Directions 533

19.8 Conclusions 536

20. Tangential-Flow Filtration for Virus Capture 541
S. Ranil Wickramasinghe

20.1 Introduction 541

20.2 Tangential-Flow Filtration 543

20.3 Tangential-Flow Filtration for Virus Capture 545

20.4 Tangential-Flow Filtration for Virus Clearance 550

20.5 Conclusions 552

PART III GAS SEPARATIONS 557

21. Vapor and Gas Separation by Membranes 559
Richard W. Baker

21.1 Introduction to Membranes and Modules 559

21.2 Membrane Process Design 563

21.3 Applications 567

21.4 Conclusions 577

21.5 Glossary 577

22. Gas Separation by Polyimide Membranes 581
Yoji Kase

22.1 Introduction 581

22.2 Permeability and Chemical Structure of Polyimides 582

22.3 Manufacture of Asymmetric Membrane 587

22.4 Membrane Module 588

22.5 Applications of Polyimide Gas Separation Membranes 589

23. Gas Separation by Carbon Membranes 599
P. Jason Williams and William J. Koros

23.1 Introduction 599

23.2 Structure of Carbon Membranes 599

23.3 Transport in Carbon Membranes 601

23.4 Formation of Carbon Membranes 604

23.5 Current Separation Performance 616

23.6 Production of CMS Modules 620

23.7 Challenges and Disadvantages of CMS Membranes 622

23.8 Direction of Carbon Membrane Development 626

24. Polymeric Membrane Materials and Potential Use in Gas Separation 633
Ho Bum Park and Young Moo Lee

24.1 Introduction 633

24.2 Basic Principles of Gas Separation in Polymer Membranes 635

24.3 Limitations of Gas Separations Using Polymer Membranes 643

24.4 Polymer Membrane Materials 646

24.5 Membrane Gas Separation Applications and Conclusions 659

25. Hydrogen Separation Membranes 671
Yi Hua Ma

25.1 Introduction 671

25.2 Porous Nonmetallic Membranes for Hydrogen Separations 672

25.3 High-Temperature Hydrogen Separation Membranes 674

25.4 Concluding Remarks 680

PART IV MEMBRANE CONTACTORS AND REACTORS 685

26. Membrane Contactors 687
Kamalesh K. Sirkar

26.1 Introduction 687

26.2 Membrane-Based Contacting of Two Fluid Phases 690

26.3 Membrane-Based Solid–Fluid Contacting 696

26.4 Two Immobilized Phase Interfaces 697

26.5 Dispersive Contacting in a Membrane Contactor 699

26.6 Concluding Remarks 700

27. Membrane Reactors 703
Enrico Drioli and Enrica Fontananova

27.1 State-of-the-Art On Catalytic Membrane Reactors 703

27.2 Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatments 704

27.3 Selective Oxidations 710

27.4 Biocatalytic Membrane Reactors 712

27.5 Catalytic Crystals 712

27.6 Inorganic Membrane Reactors 713

27.7 Microreactors 713

27.8 Conclusions 714

PART V ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY APPLICATIONS 719

28. Facilitated Transport Membranes for Environmental, Energy, and Biochemical Applications 721
Jian Zou, Jin Huang, and W. S. Winston Ho

28.1 Introduction 721

28.2 Supported Liquid Membranes with Strip Dispersion 729

28.3 Carbon-Dioxide-Selective Membranes 737

28.4 Conclusions 747

29. Fuel Cell Membranes 755
Peter N. Pintauro and Ryszard Wycisk

29.1 Introduction to Fuel Cells 755

29.2 Background on Fuel Cell Membranes 759

29.3 Recent Work on New Fuel Cell Membranes 764

29.4 Conclusions 779

PART VI MEMBRANE MATERIALS AND CHARACTERIZATION 787

30. Recent Progress in Mixed-Matrix Membranes 789
Chunqing Liu, Santi Kulprathipanja, Alexis M. W. Hillock, Shabbir Husain, and William J. Koros

30.1 Introduction 789

30.2 Recent Progress in Mixed-Matrix Membranes 794

30.3 Summary and Future Opportunities 809

31. Fabrication of Hollow-Fiber Membranes by Phase Inversion 821
Tai-Shung Neal Chung

31.1 Introduction 821

31.2 Basic Understanding 822

31.3 Recent Progresses on Single-Layer Asymmetric Hollow-Fiber Membranes 825

31.4 Dual-Layer Hollow Fibers 831

31.5 Concluding Remarks 835

32. Membrane Surface Characterization 841
M. Kallioinen and M. Nystrom

32.1 Introduction 841

32.2 Characterization of the Chemical Structure of a Membrane 842

32.3 Characterization of Membrane Hydrophilicity 852

32.4 Characterization of Membrane Charge 855

32.5 Characterization of Membrane Morphology 859

32.6 Conclusions 867

33. Membrane Characterization by Ultrasonic Time-Domain Reflectometry 879
William B. Krantz and Alan R. Greenberg

33.1 Introduction 879

33.2 Principle of UTDR Measurement 880

33.3 Characterization of Inorganic Membrane Fouling 882

33.4 Characterization of Membrane Biofouling 885

33.5 Characterization of Membrane Compaction 886

33.6 Characterization of Membrane Formation 889

33.7 Characterization of Membrane Morphology 891

33.8 Summary and Recommendations 894

34. Microstructural Optimization of Thin Supported Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Water Purification 899
M. L. Mottern, J. Y. Shi, K. Shqau, D. Yu, and Henk Verweij

34.1 Introduction 899

34.2 Morphology, Porosity, and Defects 902

34.3 Optimization of Supported Membrane Structures 908

34.4 Synthesis and Manufacturing 917

34.5 Characterization 918

34.6 Conclusions 923

35. Structure/Property Characteristics of Polar Rubbery Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Removal 929
Victor A. Kusuma, Benny D. Freeman, Miguel Jose-Yacaman, Haiqing Lin, Sumod Kalakkunnath, and Douglass S. Kalika

35.1 Introduction and Background 929

35.2 Theory and Experiment 931

35.3 Results and Discussion 937

35.4 Conclusions 950

Index 955

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Norman N. Li, PhD, is the President of NL Chemical Technology, Inc., and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Li holds forty-five patents, has edited twenty books, and has received many honors, including the 2000 Perkin Medal presented by the Society of Chemical Industry American Section.

Anthony G. Fane, PhD, is Director of the Singapore Membrane Technology Centre at NanyangTechnological University, Singapore. He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering.

W. S. Winston Ho, PhD, has been University Scholar Professor of Chemical Engineering at The Ohio State University. He holds more than fifty U.S. patents in separation processes and has won several awards, including the 2007 Clarence G. Gerhold Award from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Takeshi Matsuura, PhD, is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at University of Ottawa, Canada. He has published more than 300 papers in refereed journals, authored or coauthored three books, and edited four books.

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