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Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites

ISBN: 978-0-471-73426-0
429 pages
April 2007
Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites (0471734268) cover image


Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites takes a comprehensive look at polymer nanocomposites for flame retardancy applications and includes nanocomposite fundamentals (theory, design, synthesis, characterization) as well as polymer flammability fundamentals with emphasis on how nanocomposites affect flammability.

The book has practical examples from literature, patents, and existing commercial products. Readers can design new work based upon the material in the book or use it as a handy reference for interpreting existing work and results.

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Table of Contents



1 Introduction to Flame Retardancy and Polymer Flammability (Sergei V. Levchik).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Polymer Combustion and Testing.

1.3 Flame Retardancy.

1.4 Conclusions and Future Outlook.


2 Fundamentals of Polymer Nanocomposite Technology (E. Manias, G. Polizos, H. Nakajima, and M. J. Heidecker).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Fundamentals of Polymer Nanocomposites.

2.3 Effects of Nanofillers on Material Properties.

2.4 Future Outlook.


3 Flame Retardant Mechanism of Polymer–Clay Nanocomposites (Jeffrey W. Gilman).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Flame Retardant Mechanism.

3.3 Conclusions and Future Outlook.


4 Molecular Mechanics Calculations of the Thermodynamic Stabilities of Polymer–Carbon Nanotube Composites (Stanislav I. Stoliarov and Marc R. Nyden).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Background and Context.

4.3 Description of the Method.

4.4 Application to PS–CNT Composites.

4.5 Uncertainties and Limitations.

4.6 Summary and Conclusions.


5 Considerations Regarding Specific Impacts of the Principal Fire Retardancy Mechanisms in Nanocomposites (Bernhard Schartel).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Influence of Nanostructured Morphology.

5.3 Fire Retardancy Effects and Their Impact on the Fire Behavior of Nanocomposites.

5.4 Assessment of Fire Retardancy.

5.5 Summary and Conclusions.


6 Intumescence and Nanocomposites: a Novel Route for Flame-Retarding Polymeric Materials (Serge Bourbigot and Sophie Duquesne).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Basics of Intumescence.

6.3 Zeolites as Synergistic Agents in Intumescent Systems.

6.4 Intumescents in Polymer Nanocomposites.

6.5 Nanofillers as Synergists in Intumescent Systems.

6.6 Critical Overview of Recent Advances.

6.7 Summary and Conclusion.


7 Flame Retardant Properties of Organoclays and Carbon Nanotubes and Their Combinations with Alumina Trihydrate (Gunter Beyer).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Experimental Process.

7.3 Organoclay Nanocomposites.

7.4 Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites.

7.5 Summary and Conclusions.


8 Nanocomposites with Halogen and Nonintumescent Phosphorus Flame Retardant Additives (Yuan Hu and Lei Song).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Preparation Methods and Morphological Study.

8.3 Thermal Stability.

8.4 Mechanical Properties.

8.5 Flammability Properties.

8.6 Flame Retardant Mechanism.

8.7 Summary and Conclusions.


9 Thermoset Fire Retardant Nanocomposites (Mauro Zammarano).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Clays.

9.3 Thermoset Nanocomposites.

9.4 Epoxy Nanocomposites Based on Cationic Clays.

9.5 Epoxy Nanocomposites Based on Anionic Clays.

9.6 Polyurethane Nanocomposites.

9.7 Vinyl Ester Nanocomposites.

9.8 Summary and Conclusions.


10 Progress in Flammability Studies of Nanocomposites with New Types of Nanoparticles (Takashi Kashiwagi).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Nanoscale Oxide-Based Nanocomposites.

10.3 Carbon-Based Nanocomposites.

10.4 Discussion of Results.

10.5 Summary and Conclusions.


11 Potential Applications of Nanocomposites for Flame Retardancy (A. Richard Horrocks and Baljinder K. Kandola).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Requirements for Nanocomposite System Applications.

11.3 Potential Application Areas.

11.4 Future Outlook.


12 Practical Issues and Future Trends in Polymer Nanocomposite Flammability Research (Alexander B. Morgan and Charles A. Wilkie).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Polymer Nanocomposite Structure and Dispersion.

12.3 Polymer Nanocomposite Analysis.

12.4 Changing Fire and Environmental Regulations.

12.5 Current Environmental Health and Safety Status for Nanoparticles.

12.6 Commercialization Hurdles.

12.7 Fundamentals of Polymer Nanocomposite Flammability.

12.8 Future Outlook.



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Author Information

Alexander B. Morgan, PhD, is a Senior Research Scientist and group leader for the Advanced Polymers Group at the University of Dayton Research Institute. Dr. Morgan has worked for over eleven years in the field of flame retardancy and has focused on flame retardant nanocomposites for the past seven years. He previously held positions at Dow Chemical as a research chemist and was a National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Charles A. Wilkie, PhD, is the Pfletschinger-Habermann Professor of Chemistry at Marquette University. Dr. Wilkie has worked for almost thirty years in fire retardancy, focusing on nanocomposites the past seven years. He is Associate Editor of Polymers for Advanced Technologies and on the editorial boards of Thermochimica Acta and Polymer Degradation and Stability.

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"Whether of what role clay nanocomposites will find in flame retardancy is unknown.  This volume does provide a very good view of what we do know and what we need to do next" (Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 2008)

"Those working in the field of flame retardants for polymers scientists, engineers, researchers, material scientists, and fire scientists will use this book for its very relevant, practical, and timely information.  The descriptions given also may lead to developments of new and improved flame retardant materials, well worth the price..." (IEEE Electrical Insulation, April 2008)

"...Very useful is that the book has practical examples from literature, patents, and existing commercial products. The reader can design new work based upon the material in the book or use it as a handy reference for interpreting existing work and results." (PU Magazine, August 2007)

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