Mechanical Properties of Ceramics, 2nd EditionISBN: 9780471735816
479 pages
April 2009

When failure occurs in ceramic materials, it is often catastrophic, instantaneous, and total. Now in its Second Edition, this important book arms readers with a thorough and accurate understanding of the causes of these failures and how to design ceramics for failure avoidance. It systematically covers:

Stress and strain

Types of mechanical behavior

Strength of defectfree solids

Linear elastic fracture mechanics

Measurements of elasticity, strength, and fracture toughness

Subcritical crack propagation

Toughening mechanisms in ceramics

Effects of microstructure on toughness and strength

Cyclic fatigue of ceramics

Thermal stress and thermal shock in ceramics

Fractography

Dislocation and plastic deformation in ceramics

Creep and superplasticity of ceramics

Creep rupture at high temperatures and safe life design

Hardness and wear

And more
While maintaining the first edition's reputation for being an indispensable professional resource, this new edition has been updated with sketches, explanations, figures, tables, summaries, and problem sets to make it more studentfriendly as a textbook in undergraduate and graduate courses on the mechanical properties of ceramics.
Acknowledgments.
1 Stress and Strain.
1.1 Introduction.
1.2 Tensor Notation for Stress.
1.3 Stress in Rotated Coordinate System.
1.4 Principal Stress.
1.4.1 Principal Stresses in Three Dimensions.
1.5 Stress Invariants.
1.6 Stress Deviator.
1.7 Strain.
1.8 True Stress and True Strain.
1.8.1 True Strain.
1.8.2 True Stress.
Problems.
2 Types of Mechanical Behavior.
2.1 Introduction.
2.2 Elasticity and Brittle Fracture.
2.3 Permanent Deformation.
3 Elasticity.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Elasticity of Isotropic Bodies.
3.3 Reduced Notation for Stresses, Strains, and Elastic Constants.
3.4 Effect of Symmetry on Elastic Constants.
3.5 Orientation Dependence of Elastic Moduli in Single Crystals and Composites.
3.6 Values of Polycrystalline Moduli in Terms of Single–Crystal Constants.
3.7 Variation of Elastic Constants with Lattice Parameter.
3.8 Variation of Elastic Constants with Temperature.
3.9 Elastic Properties of Porous Ceramics.
3.10 Stored Elastic Energy.
Problems.
4 Strength of DefectFree Solids.
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Theoretical Strength in Tension.
4.3 Theoretical Strength in Shear.
Problems.
5 Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics.
5.1 Introduction.
5.2 Stress Concentrations.
5.3 Griffith Theory of Fracture of a Brittle Solid.
5.4 Stress at Crack Tip: An Estimate.
5.5 Crack Shape in Brittle Solids.
5.6 Irwin Formulation of Fracture Mechanics: Stress Intensity Factor.
5.7 Irwin Formulation of Fracture Mechanics: Energy Release Rate.
5.8 Some Useful Stress Intensity Factors.
5.9 The J Integral.
5.10 Cracks with Internal Loading.
5.11 Failure under Multiaxial Stress.
Problems.
6 Measurements of Elasticity, Strength, and Fracture Toughness.
6.1 Introduction.
6.2 Tensile Tests.
6.3 Flexure Tests.
6.4 DoubleCantileverBeam Test.
6.5 DoubleTorsion Test.
6.6 Indentation Test.
6.7 Biaxial Flexure Testing.
6.8 Elastic Constant Determination Using Vibrational and Ultrasonic Methods.
Problems.
7 Statistical Treatment of Strength.
7.1 Introduction.
7.2 Statistical Distributions.
7.3 Strength Distribution Functions.
7.4 Weakest Link Theory.
7.5 Determining Weibull Parameters.
7.6 Effect of Specimen Size.
7.7 Adaptation to Bend Testing.
7.8 Safety Factors.
7.9 Example of Safe Stress Calculation.
7.10 Proof Testing.
7.11 Use of Pooled Fracture Data in Linear Regression Determination of Weibull Parameters.
7.12 Method of Maximum Likelihood in Weibull Parameter Estimation.
7.13 Statistics of Failure under Multiaxial Stress.
7.14 Effects of Slow Crack Propagation and RCurve Behavior on Statistical Distributions of Strength.
7.15 Surface Flaw Distributions and Multiple Flaw Distributions.
Problems.
8 Subcritical Crack Propagation.
8.1 Introduction.
8.2 Observed Subcritical Crack Propagation.
8.3 Crack Velocity Theory and Molecular Mechanism.
8.4 Time to Failure under Constant Stress.
8.5 Failure under Constant Stress Rate.
8.6 Comparison of Times to Failure under Constant Stress and Constant Stress Rate.
8.7 Relation of Weibull Statistical Parameters with and without Subcritical Crack Growth.
8.8 Construction of Strength–Probability–Time Diagrams.
8.9 Proof Testing to Guarantee Minimum Life.
8.10 Subcritical Crack Growth and Failure from Flaws Originating from Residual Stress Concentrations.
8.11 Slow Crack Propagation at High Temperature.
Problems.
9 Stable Crack Propagation and RCurve Behavior.
9.1 Introduction.
9.2 RCurve (TCurve) Concept.
9.3 RCurve Effects of Strength Distributions.
9.4 Effect of R Curve on Subcritical Crack Growth.
Problems.
10 Overview of Toughening Mechanisms in Ceramics.
10.1 Introduction.
10.2 Toughening by Crack Deflection.
10.3 Toughening by Crack Bowing.
10.4 General Remarks on Crack Tip Shielding.
11 Effect of Microstructure on Toughness and Strength.
11.1 Introduction.
11.2 Fracture Modes in Polycrystalline Ceramics.
11.3 Crystalline Anisotropy in Polycrystalline Ceramics.
11.4 Effect of Grain Size on Toughness.
11.5 Natural Flaws in Polycrystalline Ceramics.
11.6 Effect of Grain Size on Fracture Strength.
11.7 Effect of SecondPhase Particles on Fracture Strength.
11.8 Relationship between Strength and Toughness.
11.9 Effect of Porosity on Toughness and Strength.
11.10 Fracture of Traditional Ceramics.
Problems.
12 Toughening by Transformation.
12.1 Introduction.
12.2 Basic Facts of Transformation Toughening.
12.3 Theory of Transformation Toughening.
12.4 ShearDilatant Transformation Theory.
12.5 GrainSizeDependent Transformation Behavior.
12.6 Application of Theory to CaStabilized Zirconia.
Problems.
13 Mechanical Properties of ContinuousFiberReinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites.
13.1 Introduction.
13.2 Elastic Behavior of Composites.
13.3 Fracture Behavior of Composites with Continuous, Aligned Fibers.
13.4 Complete Matrix Cracking of Composites with Continuous, Aligned Fibers.
13.5 Propagation of Short, Fully Bridged Cracks.
13.6 Propagation of Partially Bridged Cracks.
13.7 Additional Treatment of CrackBridging Effects.
13.8 Additional Statistical Treatments.
13.9 Summary of FiberToughening Mechanisms.
13.10 Other Failure Mechanisms in Continuous, AlignedFiber Composites.
13.11 Tensile Stress–Strain Curve of Continuous, AlignedFiber Composites.
13.12 Laminated Composites.
Problems.
14 Mechanical Properties of Whisker, Ligament, and PlateletReinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites.
14.1 Introduction.
14.2 Model for Whisker Toughening.
14.3 Combined Toughening Mechanisms in WhiskerReinforced Composites.
14.4 LigamentReinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites.
14.5 PlateletReinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites.
Problems.
15 Cyclic Fatigue of Ceramics.
15.1 Introduction.
15.2 Cyclic Fatigue of Metals.
15.3 Cyclic Fatigue of Ceramics.
15.4 Mechanisms of Cyclic Fatigue of Ceramics.
15.5 Cyclic Fatigue by Degradation of Crack Bridges.
15.6 ShortCrack Fatigue of Ceramics.
15.7 Implications of Cyclic Fatigue in Design of Ceramics.
Problems.
16 Thermal Stress and Thermal Shock in Ceramics.
16.1 Introduction.
16.2 Magnitude of Thermal Stresses.
16.3 Figure of Merit for Various Thermal Stress Conditions.
16.4 Crack Propagation under Thermal Stress.
Problems.
17 Fractography.
17.1 Introduction.
17.2 Qualitative Features of Fracture Surfaces.
17.3 Quantitative Fractography.
17.4 Fractal Concepts in Fractography.
17.5 Fractography of Single Crystals and Polycrystals.
Problems.
18 Dislocations and Plastic Deformation in Ductile Crystals.
18.1 Introduction.
18.2 Definition of Dislocations.
18.3 Glide and Climb of Dislocations.
18.4 Force on a Dislocation.
18.5 Stress Field and Energy of a Dislocation.
18.6 Force Required to Move a Dislocation.
18.7 Line Tension of a Dislocation.
18.8 Dislocation Multiplication.
18.9 Forces between Dislocations.
18.10 Dislocation Pileups.
18.11 Orowan’s Equation for Strain Rate.
18.12 Dislocation Velocity.
18.13 Hardening by Solid Solution and Precipitation.
18.14 Slip Systems.
18.15 Partial Dislocations.
18.16 Deformation Twinning.
Problems.
19 Dislocations and Plastic Deformation in Ceramics.
19.1 Introduction.
19.2 Slip Systems in Ceramics.
19.3 Independent Slip Systems.
19.4 Plastic Deformation in SingleCrystal Alumina.
19.5 Twinning in Aluminum Oxide.
19.6 Plastic Deformation of SingleCrystal Magnesium Oxide.
19.7 Plastic Deformation of SingleCrystal Cubic Zirconia.
Problems.
20 Creep in Ceramics.
20.1 Introduction.
20.2 Nabarro–Herring Creep.
20.3 Combined Diffusional Creep Mechanisms.
20.4 Power Law Creep.
20.5 Combined Diffusional and Power Law Creep.
20.6 Role of Grain Boundaries in HighTemperature Deformation and Failure.
20.7 DamageEnhanced Creep.
20.8 Superplasticity.
20.9 Deformation Mechanism Maps.
Problems.
21 Creep Rupture at High Temperatures and Safe Life Design.
21.1 Introduction.
21.2 General Process of Creep Damage and Failure in Ceramics.
21.3 Monkman–Grant Technique of Life Prediction.
21.4 TwoStage Strain Projection Technique.
21.5 Fracture Mechanism Maps.
Problems.
22 Hardness and Wear.
22.1 Introduction.
22.2 Spherical Indenters versus Sharp Indenters.
22.3 Methods of Hardness Measurement.
22.4 Deformation around Indentation.
22.5 Cracking around Indentation.
22.6 Indentation Size Effect.
22.7 Wear Resistance.
Problems.
23 Mechanical Properties of Glass and Glass Ceramics.
23.1 Introduction.
23.2 Typical Inorganic Glasses.
23.3 Viscosity of Glass.
23.4 Elasticity of Inorganic Glasses.
23.5 Strength and Fracture Surface Energy of Inorganic Glasses.
23.6 Achieving High Strength in Bulk Glasses.
23.7 Glass Ceramics.
Problems.
24 Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Ceramics in General and Design Considerations.
24.1 Introduction.
24.2 Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Ceramics in General.
24.3 Design Involving Mechanical Properties.
References.
Index.
W. Roger Cannon, PHD, is Professor Emeritus of Materials Science and Engineering at Rutgers University. He was previously on the research staff of MIT's Ceramic Processing Laboratory after receiving his PhD from Stanford University. His interests include mechanical properties, especially creep, sintering, and tape casting.
M. John Matthewson, PHD, is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Rutgers University. His research interests include the mechanical properties and reliability of materials and, in particular, of optical fiber and fiber components. He also works on computational modeling of various materialsrelated issues, including processing, sintering, and lifetime calculations.
Mechanical Properties of Ceramics, 2nd Edition (US $152.00)
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