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Water Encyclopedia, Volume 5, Ground Water

Jay H. Lehr (Editor), Jack Keeley (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-471-73683-7
846 pages
June 2005
Water Encyclopedia, Volume 5, Ground Water (047173683X) cover image
The single greatest reservoir of usable water for man lies underground. Its location, management, protection and remediation have been a central focus of hydrology for much of the past century. Experts throughout the world have covered this subject, in unimagined detail. Ground water remains unseen but no longer unknown, and now amazingly well defined in every aspect of quality and quantity, development, protection and remediation.
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Preface ix

Contributors xi

Ground Water

Acid Mine Drainage: Sources and Treatment in the United States 1

Aquifers 9

Artificial Recharge of Unconfined Aquifer 11

Groundwater and Arsenic: Chemical Behavior and Treatment 17

Treatment of Arsenic, Chromium, and Biofouling in Water Supply Wells 22

Artesian Water 29

Modeling Contaminant Transport and Biodegradation in Groundwater 30

Biofouling in Water Wells 35

In Situ Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater 38

Process Limitations of In Situ Bioremediation of Groundwater 42

Black Mesa Monitoring Program 48

Brine Deposits 51

Connate Water 54

Consolidated Water Bearing Rocks 55

Sensitivity of Groundwater to Contamination 56

Water Contamination by Low Level Organic

Waste Compounds in the Hydrologic System 60

Darcy’s Law 63

Groundwater Dating with Radiocarbon 64

Groundwater Dating with H–He 65

Dating Groundwaters with Tritium 69

Recharge in Desert Regions Around The World 72

Hydrologic Feasibility Assessment and Design in Phytoremediation 76

Well Design and Construction 87

Physical Properties of DNAPLs and Groundwater Contamination 91

Water Dowsing (Witching) 92

Subsurface Drainage 94

Drawdown 101

Water Level Drawdown 102

Water Well Drilling Techniques 105

Groundwater Dye Tracing in Karst 107

Earthquakes—Rattling the Earth’s Plumbing System 111

In Situ Electrokinetic Treatment of MtBE, Benzene, and Chlorinated Solvents 116

Field Capacity 124

Groundwater Flow Properties 128

Fluoride Contamination in Ground Water 130

Rock Fracture 136

Geochemical Models 138

Geochemical Modeling-Computer Codes 140

Geochemical Modeling—Computer Code Concepts 142

Geological Occurrence of Groundwater 145

Geophysics and Remote Sensing 145

Geothermal Water 156

Ghijben–Herzberg Equilibrium 158

Groundwater Balance 162

Hydraulic Head 169

The Role of Heat in Groundwater Systems 172

Groundwater Flow in Heterogenetic Sediments and Fractured Rock Systems 175

Horizontal Wells 177

Horizontal Wells in Groundwater Remediation 178

Head 180

Well Hydraulics and Aquifer Tests 182

Hydraulic Properties Characterization 184

Mobility of Humic Substances in Groundwater 188

Assessment of Groundwater Quality in District Hardwar, Uttaranchal, India 192

Irrigation Water Quality in District Hardwar, Uttaranchal, India 204

Infiltration and Soil Water Processes 210

Infiltration/Capacity/Rates 212

Infiltrometers 214

Summary of Isotopes in Contaminant Hydrogeology 216

Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology 227

Water-Jetting Drilling Technologies for Well Installation And In Situ Remediation of Hydrocarbons, Solvents, and Metals 234

Karst Hydrology 235

Karst Topography 243

Detecting Modern Groundwaters with 85Kr 248

Land Use Impacts on Groundwater Quality 250

Groundwater Contamination From Municipal Landfills in the USA 253

Metal Organic Interactions in Subtitle D Landfill Leachates and Associated Ground Waters 258

Leaching 260

Well Maintenance 263

Megawatersheds 266

Mass Transport in Saturated Media 273

Soil and Water Contamination by Heavy Metals 275

Source, Mobility, and Remediation of Metals 280

Genetics of Metal Tolerance and Accumulation in Higher Plants 284

In Situ Groundwater Remediation for Heavy Metal Contamination 290

Methane in Groundwater 293

Fossil Aquifers 294

What is a Hydrochemical Model? 295

Modeling Non-Point Source Pollutants in the Vadose Zone Using GIS 299

Modeling Techniques for Solute Transport in Groundwater 305

Ambient Groundwater Monitoring Network Strategies and Design 313

Limiting Geochemical Factors in Remediation Using Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Bioremediation 319

Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater 322

Treatment for Nitrates in Groundwater 323

Nonpoint Sources 331

Organic Compounds in Ground Water 337

Overdraft 340

Chemical Oxidation Technologies for Groundwater Remediation 344

Particulate Transport in Groundwater—Bacteria and Colloids 349

Perched Groundwater 352

Permeability 355

Groundwater Vulnerability to Pesticides: An Overview of Approaches and Methods of Evaluation 357

High pH Groundwater—The Effect of The Dissolution of Hardened Cement Pastes 362

Phytoextraction and Phytostabilization: Technical, Economic and Regulatory Considerations of the Soil-Lead Issue 365

Phytoextraction of Zinc and Cadmium from Soils Using Hyperaccumulator Plants 369

Phytoremediation Enhancement of Natural Attenuation Processes 374

Bacteria Role in the Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals 376

Phytoremediation of Lead-Contaminated Soils 381

Phytoremediation of Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether 385

Phytoremediation of Selenium-Laden Soils 397

Soil Pipes and Pipe Flow 401

Low Flow Groundwater Purging and Surging 404

Groundwater Quality 406

Radial Wells 407

Recharge in Arid Regions 408

Sub-Surface Redox Chemistry: A Comparison of Equilibrium and Reaction-Based Approaches 413

Regional Flow Systems 417

Groundwater Remediation by Injection and Problem Prevention 421

Groundwater Remediation: In Situ Passive Methods 423

Groundwater Remediation by In Situ Aeration and Volatilization 426

Remediation of Contaminated Soils 432

Groundwater Remediation Project Life Cycle 436

Innovative Contaminated Groundwater Remediation Technologies 438

Resistivity Methods 443

Risk Analysis of Buried Wastes From Electricity Generation 448

Groundwater Contamination from Runoff 451

Saline Seep 453

Groundwater Sampling Techniques for Environmental Projects 454

Groundwater Sampling with Passive Diffusion Samplers 456

Specific Capacity 460

Soil Water 461

Soil and Groundwater Geochemistry and Microbiology 463

Characterizing Soil Spatial Variability 465

Deep Soil-Water Movement 471

Specific Gravity 473

Hot Springs 475

Squeezing Water from Rock 477

Storage Coefficient 480

Qanats: An Ingenious Sustainable Groundwater Resource System 483

Lysimeters 487

Steady-State Flow Aquifer Tests 491

Tidal Efficiency 497

Combined Free and Porous Flow in the Subsurface 498

Groundwater Tracing 501

Hydraulic Conductivity/Transmissibility 507

Groundwater Flow and Transport Process 514

Reactive Transport in The Saturated Zone: Case Histories for Permeable Reactive Barriers 518

Transport of Reactive Solute in Soil and Groundwater 524

Water in The Unsaturated Zone 531

Groundwater and Vadose Zone Hydrology 533

Vadose Zone Monitoring Techniques 538

Vapor Transport in the Unsaturated Zone 543

Applications of Soil Vapor Data to Groundwater Investigations 548

Groundwater Velocities 554

Viscous Flow 555

Vulnerability Mapping of Groundwater Resources 561

Water/Rocks Interaction 566

Ground Water: Wells 571

Well Screens 572

Well TEST 574

Safe Yield of an Aquifer 575

Specific Yield Storage Equation 576

Microbial Processes Affecting Monitored Natural Attenuation of Contaminants in the Subsurface 578

Groundwater Vulnerability to Pesticides: Statistical Approaches 594

Groundwater—Nature’s Hidden Treasure 599

Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams 605

The Environmental Impact of Iron in Groundwater 608

Groundwater and Cobalt: Chemical Behavior and Treatment 610

Groundwater and Cadmium: Chemical Behavior and Treatment 613

Groundwater Modeling 619

Groundwater and Benzene: Chemical Behavior and Treatment 626

Groundwater and Nitrate: Chemical Behavior and Treatment 628

Groundwater and Perchlorate: Chemical Behavior and Treatment 631

Groundwater and Vinyl Chloride: Chemical Behavior and Treatment 634

Groundwater and Uranium: Chemical Behavior and Treatment 640

Groundwater and Mercury: Chemical Behavior and Treatment 642

Groundwater and Lead: Chemical Behavior and Treatment 645

Laminar Flow 649

Finite Element Modeling of Coupled Free and Porous Flow 655

Unconfined Groundwater 662

Modeling of DNAPL Migration in Saturated Porous Media 668

The Use of Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) for Monitoring, Exposure, and Toxicity Assessment 672

River-Connected Aquifers: Geophysics, Stratigraphy, Hydrogeology, and Geochemistry 677

Index 689

Cumulative Index 711

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Jay Lehr is Senior Scientist at the Heartland Institute and Senior Scientist at Bennett & Williams, Inc. He has written 14 books and over 500 articles on environmental science. He received the nation’s first Ph.D. in Ground Water Science form the university of Arizona in 1962. For 25 years he headed the Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers. In addition, Dr. Lehr has experience as an academic researcher in environmental science and helped the federal government develop several levels of environmental regulations, including the areas of surface water and ground water.

Jack Keeley is the former Chief of Groundwater Research at the USEPA Kerr Water Resource Research Laboratory in Ada, Oklahoma.

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"Inclusion of this set in reference library collections is...mandatory." (Journal of Hazardous Materials, January 2006)
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by Jay H. Lehr (Editor-in-Chief), Jack Keeley (Editor)
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