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Water Encyclopedia, Volume 4, Oceanography; Meteorology; Physics and Chemistry; Water Law; and Water History, Art, and Culture

Jay H. Lehr (Editor), Jack Keeley (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-471-73684-4
832 pages
June 2005
Water Encyclopedia, Volume 4, Oceanography; Meteorology; Physics and Chemistry; Water Law; and Water History, Art, and Culture (0471736848) cover image
Man's history is tied up in the hydrological cycle. Its chemical and physical attributes dramatically affect its movement and quality within its major reservoirs, our oceans and atmosphere. This volume deals with a myriad of finite features of these fascinating fields along with aspects of water tied up in man's culture and history from the beginning of recorded time.
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Preface.

Contributors.

Oceanography.

Air-Sea Interaction.

NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory.

Laboratory Experiments On Bivalve Excretion Rates of Nutrients.

Temporal Scaling of Benthic Nutrient Regeneration in Bivalve-Dominated Tidal Flat.

Breakwaters.

The Ocean in Climate.

Coastal Waters.

Marine Colloids.

Deep Water Corals.

Marine Debris Abatement.

Larvae and Small Species of Polychaetes in Marine Toxilogical Testing.

El Niño: The Interannual Prediction Problem.

Renewable Energies from the Ocean.

Estuarian Waters.

NOS/NMFS Cooperative Research on Coastal Fisheries and Habitats at the Beaufort Laboratory.

Distribution and Dynamics of Gas Hydrates in the Marine Environment.

Oceanographic Environment of Glacier Bay.

NOS Sanctuaries Protect Nation's Maritime History.

Quantification of Anoxia and Hypoxia in Water Bodies.

Floating Ice.

Technology Development: Hardware Development-Marine Instrumentation Laboratory (MIL).

Seasonal Coupling Between Intertidal Macrofauna and Sediment Column Porewater Nutrient Concentrations.

Mapping the Sea Floor of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS) Offshore of New York City.

NOAA and University Scientists Study Methyl Bromide Cycling in the North Pacific.

Tidally Mediated Changes in Nutrient Concentrations.

The Role of Oceans in the Global Cycles of Climatically-Active Trace-Gases.

Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory-30 Years of Observing The Ocean.

Seawater Temperature Estimates in Paleoceanography.

Physical Oceanography.

Coastal Water Pollutants.

Trace Element Pollution.

Coral Reefs and Your Coastal Watershed.

Sea Level and Climate.

The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level.

Marine and Estuarine Microalgal Sediment Toxicity Tests.

Marine Stock Enhancement Techniques.

Physical and Chemical Variability of Tidal Streams.

Black Water Turns the Tide on Florida Coral.

Shallow Water Waves.

Water Waves.

Woods Hole: The Early Years.

An Analysis of the International Maritime Organization-London Convention Annual Ocean Dumping Reports.

Marine Sources of Halocarbons.

Food Chain/Foodweb/Food Cycle.

Plankton.

Major Ions in Seawater.

Tsunami.

Meteorology.

Ballooning and Meteorology in the Twentieth Century.

Barometric Efficiency.

CERES: Understanding The Earth's Clouds and Climate.

Chinook.

Global Climate Change.

Observations of Climate and Global Change from Real-Time Measurements.

Overview: The Climate System.

Climate and Society.

What is Climatology?

Cloud Seeding.

Condensation.

Cosmic Water.

The Water Cycle.

Cyclones.

Water Cycle.

Degree Day Method.

Desertification.

Dew.

Dew Deserts.

Dew Point.

Droughts.

Drought Indices.

The Earth Observing System: Aqua.

Entropy Theory For Hydrologic Modeling.

Evaporation.

Evapotranspiration.

Fog.

Coastal Fog Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

Rain Forests.

Frost.

Frost Damage.

The Global Water Cycle.

Ground-Based GPS Meteorology at FSL.

Climate and Water Balance on the Island of Hawaii.

Heat of Vaporization.

Hydrologic History, Problems, and Perspectives.

Humidity-Absolute.

Relative Humidity.

Hurricanes: Modeling Nature's Fury.

Hydrologic Cycle.

Hydrosphere.

Hydrologic Cycle, Water Resources, and Society.

Isohyetal Method.

What About Meteorology?

Basic Research for Military Applications.

Uncertainties in Rainfall-Runoff Modeling.

Monsoon.

African Monsoons.

Permanent Frost.

Radar Use in Rainfall Measurements.

Rainfall.

Rainfall and Runoff.

Remote Sensing of Applications in Hydrology.

Atmospheric Scientists.

Rain Simulators.

Snow Density.

Flattop Mountain Snotel Snowpack: Water Year 2004.

Snow and Snowmelt.

Snow Surveys.

A Statistical Approach to Critical Storm Period Analysis.

Sublimation.

Transpiration.

Waterspout.

United States Weather Bureau.

Weather Forecasting Through The Ages.

Overview of Weather Systems.

Unit Hydrograph Theory.

Weather and the Atmosphere.

Vapor Pressure.

Adiabatic Cooling.

Rain and Rocks: The Recipe for River Water Chemistry.

Physics and Chemistry of Water.

Acid Rain and Society.

Adsorption Capacity of Activated Carbon for Water Purification.

Adsorption of Organic Compounds.

Age Dating Old Groundwater.

Ammonia.

Beryllium in Water.

Dissolved Organic Carbon.

Mechanisms of Water Adsorption on Carbons.

The Effect of Carbon Surface Chemical Composition on the Mechanism of Phenol Adsorption from Aqueous Solutions.

Carbonate Geochemistry.

Carbonate in Natural Waters.

Chlorine-36 and Very Old Groundwaters.

Chloroflurocarbons (CFCs).

Coagulation and Flocculation.

Conductivity-Electric.

Conservation and the Water Cycle.

Defluroidation.

Deuterium.

Distilled Water.

Electricity as a Fluid.

Analysis of Aqueous Solutions Using Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (esi ms).

Fenton's Reaction and Groundwater Remediation.

Where Water Floats.

Freshwater.

Dissolved Gases.

Hard Water.

An Analysis of The Impact of Water on Health and Aging: Is All Water The Same?

Heavy Water.

Henry's Law.

Hofmeister Effects.

Clathrate Hydrates.

Hydration.

The Mirage of The H2 Economy.

Hydrogen Ion.

The Hydronium Ion.

Infiltration and Soil Moisture Processes.

Ion Exchange and Inorganic Adsorption.

Iron.

Isotopes.

Isotope Fractionation.

Mariotte Bottle-Use in Hydrology.

Mars Exploration Rover Mission.

Removal of Organic Micropollutants and Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbons.

Molecular Network Dynamics.

In Situ Chemical Monitoring.

Nitrogen.

Osmosis-Diffusion of Solvent or Caused by Diffusion of Solutes?

Partitioning and Bioavailability.

Physical Properties.

Environmental Photochemistry in Surface Waters.

Isotope Exchange in Gas-Water Reactions.

Radon in Water.

Silica in Natural Waters.

Sodium in Natural Waters.

Soft Water.

Solubility of Chemicals in Water.

Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Salt Water.

Solubility of Hydrocarbons and Sulfur Compounds in Water.

Sorption Kinetics.

Sound in Water.

Water on the Space Station.

Strontium Isotopes in Water and Rock.

Technetium in Water.

Water-Nature's Magician.

Freezing and Supercooling of Water.

Chemical Precipitation.

Antimony in Aquatic Systems.

Water Law and Economics.

The Clean Water Act.

Clean Water Act, Water Quality Criteria/Standards, TMDLs, and Weight-of-Evidence Approach for Regulating Water Quality.

The Constitution and Early Attempts at Rational Water Planning.

Economic Value of Water: Estimation.

Water Supply Planning-Federal.

Flood Control Act of 1994.

Great Lakes Governors' Agreement.

U.S./Canadian Boundary Waters Treaty and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.

Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative.

Quantitative GroundWater Law.

Islamic Water Law.

Transboundary Waters in Latin America: Conflicts and Collaboration.

United States-Mexico Border Waters: Conventions, Treaties, and Institutions.

Negotiating between Authority and Polluters: An Approach to Managing Water Quality.

Water Resource Organizations.

A Brief History of the Water Pollution Control Act in the U.S..

The National Pollution Discharge Elimination System.

Legal Protection for In-stream Flow.

Water Quality.

Interface between Federal Water Quality Regulation and State Allocation of Water Quantity.

Regulatory Issues and Remediation: Risk, Costs, and Benefits.

The Safe Drinking Water Act.

Representing Geopolitics of (Hydro) Borders in South Asia.

Water Transfers.

Reserved Water Rights for Indian and Federal Lands.

Wetlands Policy in the United States: From Drainage to Restoration.

Water History, Art, and Culture.

Curious Uses of AgriculturalWater in the World.

Water Between Arabs and Israelis: Researching Twice-Promised Resources.

The Myth of Bad Cholesterol: Why Water Is A Better Cholesterol-Lowering Medication.

Early Clocks.

Water Clocks.

Our Evolving Water Consciousness.

Effective Water Education Strategies in a Nontraditional Setting.

Evolution.

History of Pond Fisheries in Poland.

Water: The Key to Natural Health And Healing.

Water in History.

Hoover Dam History.

Hydropsychology.

Jacob's Well.

Jaubert de Passa: The First World History of Irrigation in 1846.

Benjamin Franklin: From Kite to Lightning Rod.

Water and the History of Man.

Water, Bacteria, Life on Mars, and Microbial Diversity.

Canals in the Mekong Delta: A Historical Overview from 200 C.E. to the Present.

Conflict and Water Use in the Middle East.

Benjamin Franklin's Armonica: A Water Music Instrument.

Water Transportation Occupations.

A Concise Glimpse of Water in the History of Photography.

Water as a Human Right.

Ancient Water and Soil Conservation Ecosystems of Sri Lanka.

Ben Franklin's Gulf Stream Weather and Swim Fins.

Water Symbolism.

Gordon and Franklin Rivers and the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area.

The Mistake of Waiting to Get Thirsty.

Water and Well-Being.

Free Flowing Water: A Source of Wisdom.

The Medicinal Properties of the Waters of Saratoga Springs.

A History of Hawaiian Freshwater Resources.

Index.

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Jay Lehr is Senior Scientist at the Heartland Institute and Senior Scientist at Bennett & Williams, Inc. He has written 14 books and over 500 articles on environmental science. He received the nation's first Ph.D. in Ground Water Science form the university of Arizona in 1962. For 25 years he headed the Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers. In addition, Dr. Lehr has experience as an academic researcher in environmental science and helped the federal government develop several levels of environmental regulations, including the areas of surface water and ground water.

Jack Keeley is the former Chief of Groundwater Research at the USEPA Kerr Water Resource Research Laboratory in Ada, Oklahoma.

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by Jay H. Lehr (Editor-in-Chief), Jack Keeley (Editor)
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