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Water Encyclopedia, Volume 2, Water Quality and Resource Development

Jay H. Lehr (Editor-in-Chief), Jack Keeley (Editor), Janet Lehr (Associate Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-471-73686-8
717 pages
June 2005
Water Encyclopedia, Volume 2, Water Quality and Resource Development (0471736864) cover image

Description

This volume deals with the big picture of regional water supplies, how they become contaminated, how they can be protected and how they can best serve the surrounding populations and industries. Significant focus is placed upon the natural chemistry of available water supplies and its biological impacts. Case studies from regions around the world offer an excellent picture of the world's water resources.
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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Contributors xi

Water Quality Control

Acid Mine Drainage—Extent and Character 1

The Control of Algal Populations in Eutrophic Water Bodies 2

Arsenic Compounds in Water 7

Arsenic Health Effects 15

Background Concentration of Pollutants 18

Waterborne Bacteria 20

Water Assessment and Criteria 24

Physiological Biomarkers and the Trondheim Biomonitoring System 28

Biomarkers, Bioindicators, and the Trondheim Biomonitoring System 29

Active Biomonitoring (ABM) by Translocation of Bivalve Molluscs 33

Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Other Organic Pollution Measures 37

Biodegradation 41

Bioluminescent Biosensors for Toxicity Testing 45

Biomanipulation 50

Genomic Technologies in Biomonitoring 58

Macrophytes as Biomonitors of Trace Metals 64

Biosorption of Toxic Metals 68

Bromide Influence on Trihalomethane and Haloacetic Acid Formation 74

Activated Carbon: Ion Exchange and Adsorption Properties 79

Activated Carbon—Powdered 86

Chlorination 88

Chlorination By-Products 91

Classification and Environmental Quality Assessment in Aquatic Environments 94

Coagulation and Flocculation in Practice 98

Colloids and Dissolved Organics: Role in Membrane and Depth Filtration 99

Column Experiments in Saturated Porous Media Studying Contaminant Transport 103

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase as an Indicator of PCB/Dioxin-Like Compounds in Fish 106

Water Related Diseases 111

Dishwashing Water Quality Properties 112

Disinfection By-Product Precursor Removal from Natural Waters 115

Alternative Disinfection Practices and Future Directions for Disinfection By-Product Minimization 118

Water Quality Aspects of Dredged Sediment Management 122

The Economics of Water Quality 127

Understanding Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and the Need for Rapid Detection in Water 136

Eutrophication and Organic Loading 142

Trace Element Contamination in Groundwater of District Hardwar, Uttaranchal, India 143

Iron Bacteria 149

Cartridge Filters for Iron Removal 152

Irrigation Water Quality in Areas Adjoining River Yamuna At Delhi, India 155

Water Sampling and Laboratory Safety 161

Municipal Solid Waste Landfills—Water Quality Issues 163

Land Use Effects on Water Quality 169

Monitoring Lipophilic Contaminants in the Aquatic Environment using the SPMD-TOX Paradigm 170

Use of Luminescent Bacteria and the Lux Genes For Determination of Water Quality 172

Water Quality Management 176

Water Quality Management and Nonpoint Source Control 184

Water Quality Management in an Urban Landscape 189

Water Quality Management in the U.S.: History of Water Regulation 193

Water Quality Management in a Forested Landscape 199

Trace Metal Speciation 202

Metal Ion Humic Colloid Interaction 205

Heavy Metal Uptake Rates Among Sediment Dwelling Organisms 211

Methemoglobinemia 219

Microbial Activities Management 223

Microbial Dynamics of Biofilms 228

Microbial Enzyme Assays for Detecting Heavy Metal Toxicity 233

Microbial Forms in Biofouling Events 239

Microbiological Quality Control in Distribution Systems 243

Water Quality Models for Developing Soil Management Practices 248

Water Quality Modeling—Case Studies 255

Field Sampling and Monitoring of Contaminants 263

Water Quality Models: Chemical Principles 269

Water Quality Models: Mathematical Framework 273

Environmental Applications with Submitochondrial Particles 278

Interest in the Use of an Electronic Nose for Field Monitoring of Odors in the Environment 281

Oil-Field Brine 284

Oil Pollution 290

Indicator Organisms 292

pH 294

Perchloroethylene (PCE) Removal 299

A Primer on Water Quality 301

Overview of Analytical Methods of Water Analyses With Specific Reference to EPA Methods for Priority Pollutant Analysis 304

Source-Water Protection 311

Protozoa in Water 313

Water Quality 314

Water Quality 316

Emerging and Recalcitrant Compounds in Groundwater 316

Road Salt 319

Review of River Water Quality Modeling Software Tools 325

River Water Quality Calibration 331

Salmonella: Monitoring and Detection in Drinking Water 337

Lysimeter Soil Water Sampling 340

Regulatory and Security Requirements for Potable Water 343

A Weight of Evidence Approach to Characterize Sediment Quality Using Laboratory and Field Assays: An Example For Spanish Coasts 350

Remediation and Bioremediation of Selenium-Contaminated Waters 355

Shellfish Growing Water Classification 360

Sorptive Filtration 362

Quality of Water in Storage 367

Quality of Water Supplies 370

The Submitochondrial Particle Assay as a Biological Monitoring Tool 376

Microscale Test Relationships to Responses to Toxicants in Natural Systems 379

Toxicity Identification Evaluation 380

Whole Effluent Toxicity Controls 382

Development and Application of Sediment Toxicity Tests for Regulatory Purposes 383

Algal Toxins in Water 387

Ground Water Quality in Areas Adjoining River Yamuna at Delhi, India 392

Chlorine Residual 398

Source Water Quality Management 399

Dose-Response of Mussels to Chlorine 401

Metallothioneins as Indicators of Trace Metal Pollution 406

Amphipod Sediment Toxicity Tests 408

Ciliated Protists as Test Organisms in Toxicity Assessment 413

SOFIE: An Optimized Approach for Exposure Tests and Sediment Assays 418

Passive Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage (Wetlands) 423

Biomarkers and Bioaccumulation: Two Lines of Evidence to Assess Sediment Quality 426

Lead and its Health Effects 432

Microbial Detection of Various Pollutants as an Early Warning System for Monitoring of Water Quality and Ecological Integrity of Natural Resources, in Russia 440

Luminescent Bacterial Biosensors for the Rapid Detection of Toxicants 453

Development and Application of Sediment Toxicity Test for Regulatory Purposes 458

Eh 464

Water Resource Development and Management

Water Resources Challenges in the Arab World 470

Effluent Water Regulations in Arid Lands 475

California—Continually the Nation’s Leader in Water Use 478

Lessons from the Rising Caspian 480

Institutional Aspects of Water Management in China 484

Will Water Scarcity Limit China’s Agricultural Potential? 488

Water and Coastal Resources 489

Water Use Conservation and Efficiency 489

Conservation of Water 495

The Development of American Water Resources: Planners, Politicians, and Constitutional Interpretation 498

Water Markets: Transaction Costs and Institutional Options 499

Averting Water Disputes 501

Water Supply and Water Resources: Distribution System Research 509

Drought in the Dust Bowl Years 511

Drought Management Planning 514

Drought and Water Supply Management 515

Assessment of Ecological Effects in Water-Limited Environments 516

Reaching Out: Public Education and Community Involvement in Groundwater Protection 518

Integration of Environmental Impacts into Water Resources Planning 520

The Expansion of Federal Water Projects 522

Flood Control History in the Netherlands 524

Food and Water in an Emergency 526

Water Demand Forecasting 529

Remote Sensing and GIS Application in Water Resources 531

Globalization of Water 536

Water Science Glossary of Terms 541

Harvesting Rainwater 548

Urban Water Resource and Management in Asia: Ho Chi Minh City 552

Hydropower—Energy from Moving Water 554

Water Markets in India: Economic and Institutional Aspects 555

Water Resources of India 559

Water Infrastructure and Systems 567

Overview and Trends in the International Water Market 568

Best Management Practices for Water Resources 570

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) 574

Management of Water Resources for Drought Conditions 576

Water Resources Management 586

NASA Helping to Understand Water Flow in the

West 587

Transboundary Water Conflicts in the Nile Basin 590

Planning and Managing Water Infrastructure 594

Application of the Precautionary Principle to Water Science 595

Water Pricing 603

Spot Prices, Option Prices, and Water Markets 606

Water Managed in the Public Trust 608

Water Recycling and Reuse: The Environmental Benefits 610

State and Regional Water Supply 613

River Basin Decisions Support Systems 619

Water Resource Sustainability: Concepts and Practices 624

The Provision of Drinking Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries 630

Sustainable Management of Natural Resources 633

Sustainable Water Management On Mediterranean Islands: Research and Education 638

Meeting Water Needs in Developing Countries with Tradable Rights 643

Water Use in the United States 645

How We Use Water in These United States 650

Valuing Water Resources 653

Water—Here, There, and Everywhere in Canada 656

Water Conservation—Every Drop Counts in Canada 660

Ecoregions: A Spatial Framework for Environmental Management 667

Flood of Portals on Water 668

Fuzzy Criteria for Water Resources Systems Performance Evaluation 674

Participatory Multicriteria Flood Management 678

Water Resources Systems Analysis 683

Index 689

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Author Information

Jay Lehr is Senior Scientist at the Heartland Institute and Senior Scientist at Bennett & Williams, Inc. He has written 14 books and over 500 articles on environmental science. He received the nation’s first Ph.D. in Ground Water Science form the university of Arizona in 1962. For 25 years he headed the Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers. In addition, Dr. Lehr has experience as an academic researcher in environmental science and helped the federal government develop several levels of environmental regulations, including the areas of surface water and ground water.

Jack Keeley is the former Chief of Groundwater Research at the USEPA Kerr Water Resource Research Laboratory in Ada, Oklahoma.

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