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Hazard Analysis Techniques for System Safety

ISBN: 978-0-471-73941-8
528 pages
August 2005
Hazard Analysis Techniques for System Safety (0471739413) cover image
A practical guide to identifying hazards using common hazard analysis techniques

Many different hazard analysis techniques have been developed over the past forty years. However, there is only a handful of techniques that safety analysts actually apply in their daily work. Written by a former president of the System Safety Society and winner of the Boeing Achievement and Apollo Awards for his safety analysis work, Hazard Analysis Techniques for System Safety explains, in detail, how to perform the most commonly used hazard analysis techniques employed by the system safety engineering discipline.

Focusing on the twenty-two most commonly used hazard analysis methodologies in the system safety discipline, author Clifton Ericson outlines the three components that comprise a hazard and describes how to use these components to recognize a hazard during analysis. He then examines each technique in sufficient detail and with numerous illustrations and examples, to enable the reader to easily understand and perform the analysis.

Techniques covered include:
* Preliminary Hazard List (PHL) Analysis
* Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA)
* Subsystem Hazard Analysis (SSHA)
* System Hazard Analysis (SHA)
* Operating and Support Hazard Analysis (O&SHA)
* Health Hazard Assessment (HHA)
* Safety Requirements/Criteria Analysis (SRCA)
* Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
* Event Tree Analysis (ETA)
* Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
* Fault Hazard Analysis
* Functional Hazard Analysis
* Sneak Circuit Analysis (SCA)
* Petri Net Analysis (PNA)
* Markov Analysis (MA)
* Barrier Analysis (BA)
* Bent Pin Analysis (BPA)
* HAZOP Analysis
* Cause Consequence Analysis (CCA)
* Common Cause Failure Analysis (CCFA)
* MORT Analysis
* Software Safety Assessment (SWSA)

Written to be accessible to readers with a minimal amount of technical background, Hazard Analysis Techniques for System Safety gathers, for the first time in one source, the techniques that safety analysts actually apply in daily practice. Both new and seasoned analysts will find this book an invaluable resource for designing and constructing safe systems-- in short, for saving lives.
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PREFACE.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

1. System Safety.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 System Safety Background.

1.3 System Safety Characterization.

1.4 System Safety Process.

1.5 System Concept.

1.6 Summary.

2. Hazards, Mishap, and Risk.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Hazard-Related Definitions.

2.3 Hazard Theory.

2.4 Hazard Actuation.

2.5 Hazard Causal Factors.

2.6 Hazard–Mishap Probability.

2.7 Recognizing Hazards.

2.8 Hazard Description.

2.9 Summary.

3. Hazard Analysis Types and Techniques.

3.1 Types and Techniques.

3.2 Description of Hazard Analysis Types.

3.3 Timing of Hazard Analysis Types.

3.4 Interrelationship of Hazard Analysis Types.

3.5 Hazard Analysis Techniques.

3.6 Inductive and Deductive Techniques.

3.7 Qualitative and Quantitative Techniques.

3.8 Summary.

4. Preliminary Hazard List.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Background.

4.3 History.

4.4 Theory.

4.5 Methodology.

4.6 Worksheet.

4.7 Hazard Checklists.

4.8 Guidelines.

4.9 Example: Ace Missile System.

4.10 Advantages and Disadvantages.

4.11 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

4.12 Summary.

5. Preliminary Hazard Analysis.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Background.

5.3 History.

5.4 Theory.

5.5 Methodology.

5.6 Worksheet.

5.7 Guidelines.

5.8 Example: Ace Missile System.

5.9 Advantages and Disadvantages.

5.10 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

5.11 Summary.

6. Subsystem Hazard Analysis.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Background.

6.3 History.

6.4 Theory.

6.5 Methodology.

6.6 Worksheet.

6.7 Guidelines.

6.8 Example: Ace Missile System.

6.9 Advantages and Disadvantages.

6.10 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

6.11 Summary.

7. System Hazard Analysis.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Background.

7.3 History.

7.4 Theory.

7.5 Methodology.

7.6 Worksheet.

7.7 Guidelines.

7.8 Example.

7.9 Advantages and Disadvantages.

7.10 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

7.11 Summary.

8. Operating and Support Hazard Analysis.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Background.

8.3 History.

8.4 Definitions.

8.5 Theory.

8.6 Methodology.

8.7 Worksheet.

8.8 Hazard Checklists.

8.9 Support Tools.

8.10 Guidelines.

8.11 Examples.

8.12 Advantages and Disadvantages.

8.13 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

8.14 Summary.

9. Health Hazard Assessment.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Background.

9.3 History.

9.4 Theory.

9.5 Methodology.

9.6 Worksheet.

9.7 Checklist.

9.8 Example.

9.9 Advantages and Disadvantages.

9.10 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

9.11 Summary.

10. Safety Requirements/Criteria Analysis.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Background.

10.3 History.

10.4 Theory.

10.5 Methodology.

10.6 Worksheets.

10.7 Example.

10.8 Advantages and Disadvantages.

10.9 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

10.10 Summary.

11. Fault Tree Analysis.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Background.

11.3 History.

11.4 Theory.

11.5 Methodology.

11.6 Functional Block Diagrams.

11.7 Cut Sets.

11.8 MOCUS Algorithm.

11.9 Bottom-Up Algorithm.

11.10 Mathematics.

11.11 Probability.

11.12 Importance Measures.

11.13 Example 1.

11.14 Example 2.

11.15 Example 3.

11.16 Phase- and Time-Dependent FTA.

11.17 Dynamic FTA.

11.18 Advantages and Disadvantages.

11.19 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

11.20 Summary.

12. Event Tree Analysis.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Background.

12.3 History.

12.4 Definitions.

12.5 Theory.

12.6 Methodology.

12.7 Worksheet.

12.8 Example 1.

12.9 Example 2.

12.10 Example 3.

12.11 Example 4.

12.12 Advantages and Disadvantages.

12.13 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

12.14 Summary.

13. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Background.

13.3 History.

13.4 Definitions.

13.5 Theory.

13.6 Methodology.

13.7 Worksheet.

13.8 Example 1: Hardware Product FMEA.

13.9 Example 2: Functional FMEA.

13.10 Level of Detail.

13.11 Advantages and Disadvantages.

13.12 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

13.13 Summary.

14. Fault Hazard Analysis.

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Background.

14.3 History.

14.4 Theory.

14.5 Methodology.

14.6 Worksheet.

14.7 Example.

14.8 Advantages and Disadvantages.

14.9 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

14.10 Summary.

15. Functional Hazard Analysis.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Background.

15.3 History.

15.4 Theory.

15.5 Methodology.

15.6 Worksheets.

15.7 Example 1: Aircraft Flight Functions.

15.8 Example 2: Aircraft Landing Gear Software.

15.9 Example 3: Ace Missile System.

15.10 Advantages and Disadvantages.

15.11 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

15.12 Summary.

16. Sneak Circuit Analysis.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Background.

16.3 History.

16.4 Definitions.

16.5 Theory.

16.6 Methodology.

16.7 Example 1: Sneak Path.

16.8 Example 2: Sneak Label.

16.9 Example 3: Sneak Indicator.

16.10 Example Sneak Clues.

16.11 Software Sneak Circuit Analysis.

16.12 Advantages and Disadvantages.

16.13 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

16.14 Summary.

17. Petri Net Analysis (PNA).

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Background.

17.3 History.

17.4 Definitions.

17.5 Theory.

17.6 Methodology.

17.7 Examples.

17.8 Advantages and Disadvantages.

17.9 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

17.10 Summary.

18. Markov Analysis.

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Background.

18.3 History.

18.4 Definitions.

18.5 Theory.

18.6 Methodology.

18.7 Examples.

18.8 Markov Analysis and FTA Comparisons.

18.9 Advantages and Disadvantages.

18.10 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

18.11 Summary.

19. Barrier Analysis.

19.1 Introduction.

19.2 Background.

19.3 History.

19.4 Definitions.

19.5 Theory.

19.6 Methodology.

19.6.1 Example Checklist of Energy Sources.

19.6.2 Considerations.

19.7 Worksheet.

19.8 Example.

19.9 Advantages and Disadvantages.

19.10 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

19.11 Summary.

20. Bent Pin Analysis.

20.1 Introduction.

20.2 Background.

20.3 History.

20.4 Theory.

20.5 Methodology.

20.6 Worksheet.

20.7 Example.

20.8 Advantages and Disadvantages.

20.9 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

20.10 Summary.

21. Hazard and Operability Analysis.

21.1 Introduction.

21.2 Background.

21.3 History.

21.4 Theory.

21.5 Methodology.

21.5.1 Design Representations.

21.5.2 System Parameters.

21.5.3 Guide Words.

21.5.4 Deviation from Design Intent.

21.6 Worksheet.

21.7 Example 1.

21.8 Example 2.

21.9 Advantages and Disadvantages.

21.10 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

21.11 Summary.

22. Cause–Consequence Analysis.

22.1 Introduction.

22.2 Background.

22.3 History.

22.4 Definitions.

22.5 Theory.

22.6 Methodology.

22.7 Symbols.

22.8 Worksheet.

22.9 Example 1: Three-Component Parallel System.

22.10 Example 2: Gas Pipeline System.

22.10.1 Reducing Repeated Events.

22.11 Advantages and Disadvantages.

22.12 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

22.13 Summary.

23. Common Cause Failure Analysis.

23.1 Introduction.

23.2 Background.

23.3 History.

23.4 Definitions.

23.5 Theory.

23.6 Methodology.

23.7 Defense Mechanisms.

23.8 Example.

23.9 Models.

23.10 Advantages and Disadvantages.

23.11 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

23.12 Summary.

24. Management Oversight Risk Tree Analysis.

24.1 Introduction.

24.2 Background.

24.3 History.

24.4 Theory.

24.5 Methodology.

24.6 Worksheet.

24.7 Advantages and Disadvantages.

24.8 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

24.9 Summary.

25. Software Safety Assessment.

25.1 Introduction.

25.2 Background.

25.3 History.

25.4 Theory.

25.5 Methodology.

25.6 Worksheet.

25.7 Software Risk Level.

25.8 Example.

25.9 Advantages and Disadvantages.

25.10 Common Mistakes to Avoid.

25.11 Summary.

26. Summary.

26.1 Principle 1: Hazards, Mishaps, and Risk are Not Chance Events.

26.2 Principle 2: Hazards are Created During Design.

26.3 Principle 3: Hazards are Comprised of Three Components.

26.4 Principle 4: Hazard and Mishap Risk Management Is the Core Safety Process.

26.5 Principle 5: Hazard Analysis Is a Key Element of Hazard and Mishap Risk Management.

26.6 Principle 6: Hazard Management Involves Seven Key Hazard Analysis Types.

26.7 Principle 7: Hazard Analysis Primarily Encompasses Seven Hazard Analysis Techniques.

26.8 Finis.

Appendix A: List of Acronyms.

Appendix B: Glossary.

Appendix C: Hazard Checklists.

Index.

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CLIFTON A. ERICSON II works for EG&G Technical Services, Inc., as a project manager for system safety and software safety. Mr. Ericson previously spent thirty-five years at Boeing, where, in 2000, he won the Apollo Award for fault tree training on the International Space Station and the Boeing Achievement Award for developing the Boeing Fault Tree Analysis course. He wrote a Navy manual on system safety for the Naval Ordnance Safety and Security Activity (NOSSA) and also manages several system/software safety projects. Mr. Ericson was president (2001–2003) and executive vice president (1999–2001) of the System Safety Society. He is on the technical review committee for the Journal of System Safety, cochaired the Sixteenth International System Safety Conference, and founded the Puget Sound chapter (Seattle) of the System Safety Society. In 1998, 1999, and 2004, he won the System Safety Society's President Award for outstanding work in system safety.
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