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Wireless Sensor Networks: Technology, Protocols, and Applications

ISBN: 978-0-471-74300-2
328 pages
April 2007
Wireless Sensor Networks: Technology, Protocols, and Applications (0471743003) cover image
Infrastructure for Homeland Security Environments

Wireless Sensor Networks helps readers discover the emerging field of low-cost standards-based sensors that promise a high order of spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy in an ever-increasing universe of applications. It shares the latest advances in science and engineering paving the way towards a large plethora of new applications in such areas as infrastructure protection and security, healthcare, energy, food safety, RFID, ZigBee, and processing.

Unlike other books on wireless sensor networks that focus on limited topics in the field, this book is a broad introduction that covers all the major technology, standards, and application topics. It contains everything readers need to know to enter this burgeoning field, including current applications and promising research and development; communication and networking protocols; middleware architecture for wireless sensor networks; and security and management.

The straightforward and engaging writing style of this book makes even complex concepts and processes easy to follow and understand. In addition, it offers several features that help readers grasp the material and then apply their knowledge in designing their own wireless sensor network systems:
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Examples illustrate how concepts are applied to the development and application of
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wireless sensor networks
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Detailed case studies set forth all the steps of design and implementation needed to solve real-world problems
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Chapter conclusions that serve as an excellent review by stressing the chapter's key concepts
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References in each chapter guide readers to in-depth discussions of individual topics


This book is ideal for networking designers and engineers who want to fully exploit this new technology and for government employees who are concerned about homeland security. With its examples, it is appropriate for use as a coursebook for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students.
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Preface xi

About the Authors xiii

1 Introduction and Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks 1

1.1 Introduction, 1

1.1.1 Background of Sensor Network Technology, 2

1.1.2 Applications of Sensor Networks, 10

1.1.3 Focus of This Book, 12

1.2 Basic Overview of the Technology, 13

1.2.1 Basic Sensor Network Architectural Elements, 15

1.2.2 Brief Historical Survey of Sensor Networks, 26

1.2.3 Challenges and Hurdles, 29

1.3 Conclusion, 31

References, 31

2 Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks 38

2.1 Introduction, 38

2.2 Background, 38

2.3 Range of Applications, 42

2.4 Examples of Category 2 WSN Applications, 50

2.4.1 Home Control, 51

2.4.2 Building Automation, 53

2.4.3 Industrial Automation, 56

2.4.4 Medical Applications, 57

2.5 Examples of Category 1 WSN Applications, 59

2.5.1 Sensor and Robots, 60

2.5.2 Reconfigurable Sensor Networks, 62

2.5.3 Highway Monitoring, 63

2.5.4 Military Applications, 64

2.5.5 Civil and Environmental Engineering Applications, 67

2.5.6 Wildfire Instrumentation, 68

2.5.7 Habitat Monitoring, 68

2.5.8 Nanoscopic Sensor Applications, 69

2.6 Another Taxonomy of WSN Technology, 69

2.7 Conclusion, 71

References, 71

3 Basic Wireless Sensor Technology 75

3.1 Introduction, 75

3.2 Sensor Node Technology, 76

3.2.1 Overview, 76

3.2.2 Hardware and Software, 78

3.3 Sensor Taxonomy, 80

3.4 WN Operating Environment, 84

3.5 WN Trends, 87

3.6 Conclusion, 91

References, 91

4 Wireless Transmission Technology and Systems 93

4.1 Introduction, 93

4.2 Radio Technology Primer, 94

4.2.1 Propagation and Propagation Impairments, 94

4.2.2 Modulation, 101

4.3 Available Wireless Technologies, 103

4.3.1 Campus Applications, 105

4.3.2 MAN/WAN Applications, 120

4.4 Conclusion, 131

Appendix A: Modulation Basics, 131

References, 139

5 Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 142

5.1 Introduction, 142

5.2 Background, 143

5.3 Fundamentals of MAC Protocols, 144

5.3.1 Performance Requirements, 145

5.3.2 Common Protocols, 148

5.4 MAC Protocols for WSNs, 158

5.4.1 Schedule-Based Protocols, 161

5.4.2 Random Access-Based Protocols, 165

5.5 Sensor-MAC Case Study, 167

5.5.1 Protocol Overview, 167

5.5.2 Periodic Listen and Sleep Operations, 168

5.5.3 Schedule Selection and Coordination, 169

5.5.4 Schedule Synchronization, 170

5.5.5 Adaptive Listening, 171

5.5.6 Access Control and Data Exchange, 171

5.5.7 Message Passing, 172

5.6 IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPANs Standard Case Study, 173

5.6.1 PHY Layer, 176

5.6.2 MAC Layer, 178

5.7 Conclusion, 192

References, 193

6 Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 197

6.1 Introduction, 197

6.2 Background, 198

6.3 Data Dissemination and Gathering, 199

6.4 Routing Challenges and Design Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks, 200

6.4.1 Network Scale and Time-Varying Characteristics, 200

6.4.2 Resource Constraints, 201

6.4.3 Sensor Applications Data Models, 201

6.5 Routing Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networks, 202

6.5.1 WSN Routing Techniques, 203

6.5.2 Flooding and Its Variants, 203

6.5.3 Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation, 206

6.5.4 Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, 210

6.5.5 Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems, 213

6.5.6 Directed Diffusion, 215

6.5.7 Geographical Routing, 219

6.6 Conclusion, 225

References, 225

7 Transport Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 229

7.1 Traditional Transport Control Protocols, 229

7.1.1 TCP (RFC 793), 231

7.1.2 UDP (RFC 768), 233

7.1.3 Mobile IP, 233

7.1.4 Feasibility of Using TCP or UDP for WSNs, 234

7.2 Transport Protocol Design Issues, 235

7.3 Examples of Existing Transport Control Protocols, 237

7.3.1 CODA (Congestion Detection and Avoidance), 237

7.3.2 ESRT (Event-to-Sink Reliable Transport), 237

7.3.3 RMST (Reliable Multisegment Transport), 239

7.3.4 PSFQ (Pump Slowly, Fetch Quickly), 239

7.3.5 GARUDA, 239

7.3.6 ATP (Ad Hoc Transport Protocol), 240

7.3.7 Problems with Transport Control Protocols, 240

7.4 Performance of Transport Control Protocols, 241

7.4.1 Congestion, 241

7.4.2 Packet Loss Recovery, 242

7.5 Conclusion, 244

References, 244

8 Middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks 246

8.1 Introduction, 246

8.2 WSN Middleware Principles, 247

8.3 Middleware Architecture, 248

8.3.1 Data-Related Functions, 249

8.3.2 Architectures, 252

8.4 Existing Middleware, 253

8.4.1 MiLAN (Middleware Linking Applications and Networks), 253

8.4.2 IrisNet (Internet-Scale Resource-Intensive Sensor Networks Services), 254

8.4.3 AMF (Adaptive Middleware Framework), 255

8.4.4 DSWare (Data Service Middleware), 255

8.4.5 CLMF (Cluster-Based Lightweight Middleware Framework), 256

8.4.6 MSM (Middleware Service for Monitoring), 256

8.4.7 Em*, 256

8.4.8 Impala, 257

8.4.9 DFuse, 257

8.4.10 DDS (Device Database System), 258

8.4.11 SensorWare, 258

8.5 Conclusion, 259

References, 259

9 Network Management for Wireless Sensor Networks 262

9.1 Introduction, 262

9.2 Network Management Requirements, 262

9.3 Traditional Network Management Models, 263

9.3.1 Simple Network Management Protocol, 263

9.3.2 Telecom Operation Map, 264

9.4 Network Management Design Issues, 264

9.5 Example of Management Architecture: MANNA, 267

9.6 Other Issues Related to Network Management, 268

9.6.1 Naming, 269

9.6.2 Localization, 269

9.7 Conclusion, 270

References, 270

10 Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks 273

10.1 Introduction, 273

10.2 Operating System Design Issues, 274

10.3 Examples of Operating Systems, 276

10.3.1 TinyOS, 276

10.3.2 Mate, 277

10.3.3 MagnetOS, 278

10.3.4 MANTIS, 278

10.3.5 OSPM, 279

10.3.6 EYES OS, 279

10.3.7 SenOS, 280

10.3.8 EMERALDS, 280

10.3.9 PicOS, 281

10.4 Conclusion, 281

References, 281

11 Performance and Traffic Management 283

11.1 Introduction, 283

11.2 Background, 283

11.3 WSN Design Issues, 286

11.3.1 MAC Protocols, 286

11.3.2 Routing Protocols, 286

11.3.3 Transport Protocols, 287

11.4 Performance Modeling of WSNs, 288

11.4.1 Performance Metrics, 288

11.4.2 Basic Models, 289

11.4.3 Network Models, 292

11.5 Case Study: Simple Computation of the System Life Span, 294

11.5.1 Analysis, 296

11.5.2 Discussion, 298

11.6 Conclusion, 300

References, 300

Index 303

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Kazem Sohraby, PhD, is Professor of Electrical Engineering in the College of Engineering at the University of Arkansas. Dr. Sohraby has also served as head of the university's Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, and as Director of Telecommunications Management Department at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey. Prior to his university appointment, Dr. Sohraby spent much of his career at Bell Labs Advanced Communication Technologies Center. His work resulted in more than twenty new patents for Bell Labs.

Daniel Minoli has worked and published extensively in the field of IT security, with more than thirty years of hands-on experience in IT, telecommunications, wireless, and networking. He has helped develop systems and solutions for such organizations as Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) think tanks, Bell Telephone Laboratories, ITT, Prudential Securities, Telcordia (Bell Communications Research), AT&T, Leading Edge Networks, Capital One Financial, SES Americom, New York University, Rutgers University, Stevens Institute of Technology, and Société Générale de Financement du Québec. His columns have been published in Computerworld, Network World, and Network Computing.

Taieb Znati, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Znati's recent work focuses on the design and analysis of network protocols for wired and wireless communications, sensor networks, network security, agent-based technology with collaborative environments, and middleware.

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  • Wireless Sensor Networks is a very important and widely researched area. It is a major research target of the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Defense.
  • There are major initiatives on Wireless Sensor Networks in many universities
  • The book will include student problems and examples
  • The demand for books on Wireless Sensor Networks is increasing because of the increased funding for WSN research over the past few years
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"…the best-written book in its subject area…a must-have volume for anyone interested in the potential of wireless sensor networks." (RFID Journal Online, August 20, 2007)

"…a valuable contribution to the WSN literature…it will occupy a conspicuous place in the reader's library." (Computing Reviews.com, October 8, 2007)

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