Electron Paramagnetic Resonance: Elementary Theory and Practical Applications, 2nd EditionISBN: 9780471754961
664 pages
January 2007

 Includes updated information on high frequency and multifrequency EPR, pulsed microwave techniques and spectra analysis, dynamic effects, relaxation phenomena, computerbased spectra simulation, biomedical aspects of EPR, and more
 Equips readers with sufficient knowledge of EPR techniques to go on in their specialized area of interest
 Provides problem sets and concise bibliographies at the end of each chapter, plus several tutorial appendices on topics like mathematical operations, quantum mechanics of angular momentum, experimental considerations.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE.
1.1 Introduction.
1.2 Historical Perspective.
1.3 A Simple EPR Spectrometer.
1.4 Scope of the EPR Technique.
1.5 Energy Flow in Paramagnetic Systems.
1.6 Quantization of Angular Momenta.
1.7 Relation Between Magnetic Moments and Angular Momenta.
1.8 Magnetic Field Quantities and Units.
1.9 Bulk Magnetic Properties.
1.10 Magnetic Energies and States.
1.11 Interaction of Magnetic Dipoles with Electromagnetic Radiation.
1.12 Characteristics of the Spin Systems.
1.13 ParallelField EPR.
1.14 TimeResolved EPR.
1.15 Computerology.
1.16 EPR Imaging.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
2 MAGNETIC INTERACTION BETWEEN PARTICLES.
2.1 Introduction.
2.2 Theoretical Considerations of the Hyperfine Interaction.
2.3 AngularMomentum and Energy Operators.
2.4 Energy Levels of a System with One Unpaired Electron and One Nucleus with I = ½.
2.5 Energy Levels of a System with S = ½ and I = 1.
2.6 Signs of Isotropic Hyperfine Coupling Constants.
2.7 Dipolar Interactions Between Electrons.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
3 ISOTROPIC HYPERFINE EFFECTS IN EPR SPECTRA.
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Hyperfine Splitting from Protons.
3.3 Hyperfine Splittings from Other Nuclei with I = ½.
3.4 Hyperfine Splittings from Nuclei with I > ½.
3.5 Useful Rules for the Interpretation of EPR Spectra.
3.6 HigherOrder Contributions to Hyperfine Splittings.
3.7 Deviations from the Simple Multinomial Scheme.
3.8 Other Problems Encountered in EPR Spectra of Free Radicals.
3.9 Some Interesting pType Free Radicals.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
4 ZEEMAN ENERGY (g) ANISOTROPY.
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Systems with High Local Symmetry.
4.3 Systems with Rhombic Local Symmetry.
4.4 Construction of the g Matrix.
4.5 SymmetryRelated Sites.
4.6 EPR Line Intensities.
4.7 Statistically Randomly Oriented Solids.
4.8 SpinOrbit Coupling and QuantumMechanical Modeling of g.
4.9 Comparative Overview.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
5 HYPERFINE (A) ANISOTROPY.
5.1 Introduction.
5.2 Origin of the Anisotropic Part of the Hyperfine Interaction.
5.3 Determination and Interpretation of the Hyperfine Matrix.
5.4 Combined g and Hyperfine Anisotropy.
5.5 Multiple Hyperfine Matrices.
5.6 Systems With I > ½.
5.7 Hyperfine Powder Lineshapes.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
6 SYSTEMS WITH MORE THAN ONE UNPAIRED ELECTRON.
6.1 Introduction.
6.2 Spin Hamiltonian for Two Interacting Electrons.
6.3 Systems with S = 1 (Triplet States).
6.4 Interacting Radical Pairs.
6.5 Biradicals.
6.6 Systems with S > 1.
6.7 HighSpin and HighField Energy Terms.
6.8 The Spin Hamiltonian: A Summing up.
6.9 Modeling the SpinHamiltonian Parameters.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
7 PARAMAGNETIC SPECIES IN THE GAS PHASE.
7.1 Introduction.
7.2 Monatomic GasPhase Species.
7.3 Diatomic GasPhase Species.
7.4 Triatomic and Polyatomic GasPhase Molecules.
7.5 Laser Electron Paramagnetic Resonance.
7.6 Other Techniques.
7.7 Reaction Kinetics.
7.8 AstroEPR.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
8 TRANSITIONGROUP IONS.
8.1 Introduction.
8.2 The Electronic Ground States of dElectron Species.
8.3 The EPR Parameters of dElectron Species.
8.4 TanabeSugano Diagrams and EnergyLevel Crossings.
8.5 Covalency Effects.
8.6 A Ferroelectric System.
8.7 Some fElectron Systems.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
9 THE INTERPRETATION OF EPR PARAMETERS.
9.1 Introduction.
9.2 πType Organic Radicals.
9.3 σType Organic Radicals.
9.4 Triplet States and Biradicals.
9.5 Inorganic Radicals.
9.6 Electrically Conducting Systems.
9.7 Techniques for Structural Estimates from EPR Data.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
Appendix 9A Hu¨ckel MolecularOrbital Calculations.
HMO References.
HMO Problems.
10 RELAXATION TIMES, LINEWIDTHS AND SPIN KINETIC PHENOMENA.
10.1 Introduction.
10.2 Spin Relaxation: General Aspects.
10.3 Spin Relaxation: Bloch Model.
10.4 Linewidths.
10.5 Dynamic Lineshape Effects.
10.6 Longitudinal Detection.
10.7 SaturationTransfer EPR.
10.8 Time Dependence of the EPR Signal Amplitude.
10.9 Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.
10.10 BioOxygen.
10.11 Summary.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
11 NONCONTINUOUS EXCITATION OF SPINS.
11.1 Introduction.
11.2 The Idealized B_{1} Switchon.
11.3 The Single B_{1} Pulse.
11.4 FourierTransform EPR and FID Analysis.
11.5 Multiple Pulses.
11.6 Electron SpinEcho Envelope Modulation.
11.7 Advanced Techniques.
11.8 Spin Coherence and Correlation.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading .
Problems.
12 DOUBLERESONANCE TECHNIQUES.
12.1 Introduction.
12.2 A ContinuousWave ENDOR Experiment.
12.3 Energy Levels and ENDOR Transitions.
12.4 Relaxation Processes in SteadyState ENDOR5.
12.5 CW ENDOR: SingleCrystal Examples.
12.6 CW ENDOR in Powders and NonCrystalline Solids.
12.7 CW ENDOR in Liquid Solutions.
12.8 Pulse DoubleResonance Experiments.
12.9 ElectronElectron Double Resonance (ELDOR).
12.10 Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance.
12.11 FluorescenceDetected Magnetic Resonance.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
13 OTHER TOPICS.
13.1 Apologia .
13.2 Biological Systems.
13.3 Clusters.
13.4 Charcoal, Coal, Graphite and Soot .
13.5 Colloids.
13.6 Electrochemical EPR.
13.7 EPR Imaging.
13.8 Ferromagnets, Antiferromagnets and Superparamagnets.
13.9 Glasses.
13.10 Geologic/Mineralogic Systems and Selected Gems.
13.11 Liquid Crystals.
3.12 “Point” Defects.
13.13 Polymers.
13.14 Radiation Dosage and Dating.
13.15 Spin Labels.
13.16 Spin Traps.
13.17 Trapped Atoms and Molecules.
APPENDIX A MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS.
A.1 Complex Numbers.
A.2 Operator Algebra.
A.3 Determinants.
A.4 Vectors: Scalar, Vector, and Outer Products.
A.5 Matrices.
A.6 Perturbation Theory.
A.7 Dirac Delta Function.
A.8 Group Theory.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
APPENDIX B QUANTUM MECHANICS OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM.
B.1 Introduction.
B.2 AngularMomentum Operators.
B.3 Commutation Relations for General AngularMomentum Operators.
B.4 Eigenvalues of J^{2} and J_{z}.
B.5 Superposition of States.
B.6 AngularMomentum Matrices.
B.7 Addition of Angular Momenta.
B.8 Notation for Atomic and Molecular States.
B.9 Angular Momentum and Degeneracy of States.
B.10 Time Dependence.
B.11 Precession.
B.12 Magnetic Flux Quantization.
B.13 Summary.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
Notes for Problem B.12.
APPENDIX C THE HYDROGEN ATOM AND SELECTED RADICALS RH_{n}.
C.1 Hydrogen Atom.
C.2 RH Radicals.
C.3 RH2 Radicals.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
APPENDIX D PHOTONS.
D.1 Introduction.
D.2 The Physical Aspects of Photons.
D.3 MagneticResonance Aspects.
References.
Notes.
APPENDIX E INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE.
E.1 Instrumental: Background.
E.2 CW EPR Spectrometers.
E.3 Pulsed EPR Spectrometers.
E.4 Computer Interfacing with EPR Spectrometers.
E.5 Techniques for Temperature Variation and Control.
E.6 Techniques for Pressure Variation.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
APPENDIX F EXPERIMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.
F.1 Techniques for Generation of Paramagnetic Species.
F.2 Lineshapes and Intensities.
F.3 Sensitivity and Resolution.
F.4 Measurements.
References.
Notes.
Further Reading.
Problems.
APPENDIX G EPRRELATED BOOKS AND SELECTED CHAPTERS.
APPENDIX H FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS, CONVERSION FACTORS, AND KEY DATA.
APPENDIX I MISCELLANEOUS GUIDELINES.
I.1 Notation for Symbols.
I.2 Glossary of Symbols.
I.3 Abbreviations.
I.4 Exponent Nomenclature.
I.5 Journal Reference Style.
Author Index.
Subject Index.
JAMES R. BOLTON is President of Bolton Photosciences, which provides specialty consulting services for the development and operation of ultraviolet (UV) technologies. He is Adjunct Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Alberta, and Professor Emeritus of Chemistry at the University of Western Ontario.
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