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Urban Transit Systems and Technology

ISBN: 978-0-471-75823-5
624 pages
February 2007
Urban Transit Systems and Technology (047175823X) cover image

Description

This is the only current and in print book covering the full field of transit systems and technology. Beginning with a history of transit and its role in urban development, the book proceeds to define relevant terms and concepts, and then present detailed coverage of all urban transit modes and the most efficient system designs for each. Including coverage of such integral subjects as travel time, vehicle propulsion, system integration, fully supported with equations and analytical methods, this book is the primary resource for students of transit as well as those professionals who design and operate these key pieces of urban infrastructure.
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1 HISTORY AND ROLE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT 1

1.1 Early Development of Cities 1

1.1.1 Transportation and Locations of Cities 1

1.1.2 Transportation and City Size 2

1.1.3 Form and Structure of Cities 3

1.1.4 The Industrial Revolution Urbanization and the Growth of Cities 5

1.2 Beginnings of Public Transportation 8

1.2.1 Public Transportation before the Nineteenth Century 8

1.2.2 Horse-Drawn Omnibuses 9

1.2.3 Horse-Drawn Tramways 10

1.2.4 Mechanized Street Transit Technologies before 1880 11

1.3 Invention of Electric Streetcars /Tramways 14

1.3.1 Beginnings of Electric Streetcars in the United States 15

1.3.2 Introduction of Electric Tramways in Europe 17

1.4 Street Transit Development since 1900 19

1.4.1 Streetcars /Tramways 19

1.4.2 Motorbuses 25

1.4.3 Trolleybuses 29

1.5 Development of High-Speed Rail Transit Modes 33

1.5.1 Suburban Railways/Regional Rail 33

1.5.2 Electric Interurban Railways 35

1.5.3 Rapid Transit /Metro 37

1.6 Overview and Conclusions: Transit Development and Cities 39

2 URBAN PASSENGER TRANSPORT MODES 45

2.1 Transport System Definitions and Classification 45

2.1.1 Classification by Type of Usage 45

2.1.2 Transit Modes 47

2.1.3 Transit System Components 53

2.1.4 Transit System Operations Service and Characteristics 53

2.2 Theory of Urban Passenger Transport Modes 55

2.2.1 Evolution of a Transportation System in a Model Urban Area 55

2.2.2 Review of Modal Features 64

2.3 The Family of Transit Modes: Categories and Descriptions 66

2.3.1 Paratransit 66

2.3.2 Street Transit Modes 67

2.3.3 Medium-Capacity Modes: Semirapid Transit 68

2.3.4 High-Performance Modes: Rapid Transit 71

2.3.5 Specialized Transit Modes 73

2.3.6 Review of the Family of Regular Transit Modes 73

2.3.7 Commuter Transit 81

2.4 Trends in Transit Ridership and in Use of Different Modes 81

2.4.1 Urban Travel and Transit Ridership 82

2.4.2 Increasing Diversity of Transit Modes 86

3 VEHICLE MOTION AND PERFORMANCE 91

3.1 Vehicle Motion 91

3.2 Resistance to Motion 93

3.2.1 Vehicle Resistance 93

3.2.2 Alignment Resistance 95

3.3 Internal Combustion Engine Propulsion 97

3.3.1 Characteristic Diagram for ICEs 97

3.3.2 Speed-Tractive Effort Diagram: TE _ f(V) 98

3.3.3 Vehicle Motion Force as a Function of Speed 100

3.4 Electric Propulsion 100

3.4.1 Wayside Electric Power Supply and Its Distribution to Lines 101

3.4.2 Propulsion Motors and Their Control 101

3.4.3 Electronic Motor Control 108

3.4.4 AC Propulsion Motors and Their Electronic Control 108

3.4.5 Comparison of Motor Control Types 110

3.4.6 Other Propulsion Systems 112

3.4.7 Vehicle Acceleration Force 113

3.4.8 Comparison of Electric and Diesel Propulsions 114

3.5 Vehicle Acceleration Braking and Stopping Distances 115

3.5.1 Adhesion for Wheel Traction 115

3.5.2 Acceleration and Braking Forces and Distances 119

3.6 Station-to-Station Travel Analysis 120

3.6.1 Basic Variables of Vehicle Motion 121

3.6.2 Regimes of Motion 122

3.6.3 Travel Time Equations and Diagrams 124

3.6.4 Sensitivity of Travel Time and Speed to Individual Parameters 130

3.7 Energy Consumption and Efficiency 134

3.7.1 Structure of Energy Consumption Analysis 135

3.7.2 Influence of Operating Regimes 136

3.7.3 Potential Energy Savings through Preprogrammed Driving 138

3.7.4 Influence of Stop/Station Spacing 139

3.7.5 Measures of Energy Consumption 139

4 TRANSIT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: CAPACITY PRODUCTIVITY EFFICIENCY AND UTILIZATION 149

4.1 Definitions of Quantitative Performance Attributes 149

4.1.1 Basic Attributes 149

4.1.2 Transportation Work and Productivity 151

4.1.3 Transit System Efficiency and Productivity 152

4.1.4 Consumption and Utilization 153

4.2 Transit Line Capacity 153

4.2.1 Definitions 153

4.2.2 Vehicle Capacity 156

4.3 Way Capacity 160

4.3.1 Basic Elements 161

4.3.2 Vehicle Control Categories in Transit Operation 163

4.3.3 Operating Safety Regimes 165

4.3.4 Impacts of Train Size and Control Characteristics 169

4.3.5 Application of Equations to Different Modes 173

4.4 Station Capacity 175

4.4.1 Significance and Definitions 175

4.4.2 Components and Influencing Factors 177

4.4.3 Capacity Diagrams and Equations 178

4.4.4 Measures to Increase Station Capacity 181

4.5 Theoretical and Practical Capacities of Major Transit Modes 186

4.5.1 Important Considerations in Capacity Computations 186

4.5.2 Review of Theoretical Capacities 188

4.5.3 Actual Capacities of Major Transit Modes 190

4.6 Other Quantitative Performance Measures 194

4.6.1 Transportation Quantity or Volume 194

4.6.2 System and Network Performance 195

4.6.3 Transportation Work and Productivity 196

4.6.4 Transit System Efficiency (Productivity) Indicators 196

4.6.5 Consumption Rates and Utilization Indicators 197

5 HIGHWAY TRANSIT: BUS TROLLEYBUS AND BUS RAPID TRANSIT 202

5.1 Family of Highway Transit Modes 202

5.1.1 Definitions 202

5.1.2 General Characteristics 203

5.1.3 Bus Transit System and Bus Rapid Transit Concepts 203

5.2 The Vehicles 204

5.2.1 Classification by Propulsion Systems 204

5.2.2 Classification by Body Type 210

5.2.3 Propulsion Equipment and Performance 228

5.2.4 Body Structure and Form 231

5.2.5 Review of Bus Models Characteristics and Design Trends 236

5.3 Travel Ways 239

5.3.1 Geometric Elements 239

5.3.2 Operation in Mixed Traffic 239

5.3.3 Bus Preferential Treatments 240

5.3.4 Bus Lanes on Streets 244

5.3.5 Bus Operations on Freeways 250

5.3.6 Busways 254

5.4 Bus Rapid Transit 256

5.4.1 Definitions of Bus Transit Modes 256

5.4.2 Evolution of BRT as a Mode 256

5.4.3 Vehicles 260

5.4.4 Infrastructure: Lines and Stations 262

5.4.5 Operations and ITS Applications 265

5.4.6 Review and Evaluation of BTS and BRT 265

5.5 Stops Stations and Maintenance Facilities 273

5.5.1 Bus Stops on Streets 273

5.5.2 Stations and Terminals 276

5.5.3 Garages Storage Facilities and Maintenance Shops 281

5.6 Operations Performance and Costs 285

5.6.1 Operations and Types of Service 285

5.6.2 Performance Characteristics 286

5.6.3 Service Quality and System Impacts 287

5.6.4 Costs 287

5.6.5 Trolleybuses: Characteristics and Applications 288

5.7 Present and Future Roles of Highway Transit Modes 289

6 RAIL TRANSIT: STREETCARS/TRAMWAYS LIGHT RAIL RAPID TRANSIT AND REGIONAL RAIL 297

6.1 Family of Rail Transit Modes 297

6.1.1 General Characteristics 297

6.1.2 Definitions and Characteristics of Individual Rail Modes 300

6.2 Rolling Stock 309

6.2.1 Rail Vehicle Types and Basic Components 310

6.2.2 Trucks and Mechanical/ Electrical Equipment 315

6.2.3 Vehicle Body 322

6.2.4 Review of Characteristics of Different Vehicle Models 336

6.2.5 Basic Operating Units and Train Consists 344

6.3 Rail Transit Ways: Geometry and Facilities 350

6.3.1 Geometric Elements 351

6.3.2 Track Superstructure 354

6.3.3 Rights-of-Way 362

6.4 Rubber-Tired Rapid Transit (RTRT) 383

6.4.1 Description of the Technology 384

6.4.2 Characteristics and Comparison with Rail Technology 385

6.4.3 Potential Applications of Rubber-Tired Rapid Transit 387

6.5 Stops Stations and Yards 388

6.5.1 At-Grade Stops 388

6.5.2 At-Grade Transfer Stations 389

6.5.3 Controlled-Access Stations 390

6.5.4 Auto-Transit Interface Stations 405

6.5.5 Rail Transit Yards and Shops 408

6.6 Operations Performance and Costs 408

6.6.1 Vehicle /Train Travel Control and Automation 408

6.6.2 Performance Characteristics of Rail Modes 421

6.6.3 Rail Transit Costs 426

6.7 Present and Future Role of Rail Transit 431

6.7.1 Trends and Impacts of Urban Population and Growth of Auto Ownership 432

6.7.2 Goals and Objectives in Building Rail Transit Systems 432

6.7.3 What Size City for Rapid Transit? 434

6.7.4 Development of Rail Transit in the United States 436

6.7.5 Present and Future Role of Rail Transit around the World 437

7 UNCONVENTIONAL CONCEPTS AND SYSTEMS: AUTOMATED GUIDED TRANSIT AND MONORAILS 444

7.1 Evaluation of Conventional Systems and Potential for Innovations 444

7.2 Analysis of Systems Components 445

7.2.1 Vehicle Support Guidance and Switches 445

7.2.2 Vehicle /TU Capacity 452

7.2.3 Dual-Mode Operations 453

7.2.4 Fully Automatic Operation 455

7.3 Unconventional Modes and Systems 456

7.3.1 Automated Guided Transit and Automated People Movers 456

7.3.2 Monorails 469

7.3.3 Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) 472

7.4 Evaluation of Unconventional Modes and New Concepts 475

8 SPECIALIZED TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS 477

8.1 Short-Haul and Shuttle Transit Systems 477

8.1.1 Pedestrians and Pedestrian-Assisting Systems 477

8.1.2 Short-Haul Transit Modes 478

8.1.3 Significance of Short-Haul Transportation 481

8.1.4 Point-to-Point Shuttles and Lines 481

8.2 Terrain-Specialized Technologies 482

8.2.1 Rail Systems with Auxiliary Traction 482

8.2.2 Aerial Tramways 490

8.3 Waterborne Transit Systems 493

8.3.1 Types of Vessels 493

8.3.2 Ferryboat Services 497

9 PARATRANSIT 501

9.1 Definition and Classification 501

9.2 Modified Uses of Private Transportation 503

9.2.1 Car Rentals 503

9.2.2 Carpools 503

9.3 Semipublic Paratransit 504

9.3.1 Vanpools 504

9.3.2 Subscription Buses 505

9.3.3 Car Sharing 506

9.4 Public (Regular) Paratransit 506

9.4.1 Taxis 506

9.4.2 Jitneys 508

9.4.3 Dial-a-Ride and Other Hybrid-Type Services 513

9.5 Evaluation of Paratransit and Its Roles 516

9.5.1 Characteristics of Paratransit 516

9.5.2 Potential Improvements 517

9.5.3 Present and Potential Roles of Paratransit 518

10 CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPARISONS OF TRANSIT MODES 521

10.1 Basic Elements of Transit Modes 521

10.1.1 Significance of Right-of-Way Categories 521

10.1.2 Transit Systems Technology 524

10.1.3 Interdependence of ROW and System Technology 528

10.1.4 Review of Technological and Operational Features 528

10.2 Medium-Performance Transit Modes 532

10.2.1 Bus Rapid Transit 532

10.2.2 Trolleybus System 533

10.2.3 Light Rail Transit 534

10.2.4 Automated Guided Transit Systems 535

10.2.5 Comparisons of Medium-Performance Modes 538

10.3 High-Performance Modes 544

10.3.1 Light Rail Rapid Transit Modes 545

10.3.2 Rail Rapid Transit /Metro 547

10.3.3 Rubber-Tired Rapid Transit and Monorails 548

10.3.4 Review of Guided Modes and Their Automation 549

10.4 Regional Transit Modes 550

10.4.1 Regional Buses 551

10.4.2 Commuter Rail 551

10.4.3 Regional Rail 551

10.4.4 Regional Rapid Transit 552

10.4.5 Trends in Regional Rail Transit Development 552

10.5 Progress and Problems in Mode Selection 553

10.5.1 Increased Mode Diversification 554

10.5.2 Support for and Attacks on Public Transit 554

10.5.3 Campaigns against Rail Transit 555

10.5.4 Discrepancies between Theoretical Analyses and Real World Systems 556

10.5.5 Systems Approach in Mode Selection and Intermodal Relationships 557

10.5.6 Importance of Rational Choice of Transit Modes 559

Bibliography 563

Appendix I SI and English Units and Conversion Factors 565

Appendix II List of Abbreviations 572

Appendix III Definitions of Transit Systems Terms 575

Appendix IV Answers to Selected Exercise Questions 583

Index of Cities 589

Index 595

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Author Information

Vukan R. Vuchic, PhD, is UPS Foundation Professor of Transportation Engineering in the Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of Urban Transit: Operations, Planning, and Economics (Wiley), Transportation for Livable Cities, and other acclaimed books and articles on the subject of urban transit. He has consulted for over a dozen cities around the world and lectured at over seventy universities.
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Reviews

"Fully supported with equations and analytical methods, this book is the primary resource for students of transit, as well as those professionals who de­sign and operate these key pieces of urban infrastructures." (ENR.com, December 2008)

"This book is filled with essential instructional information for not only understanding history and current technology, but all of the intricate details involved with any transit project." (ENR.com; 10/31/07)

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