Practical Wastewater Treatment
Practical Wastewater Treatment is designed as a teaching and training tool for chemical, civil, and environmental engineers. Based on an AIChE training course, developed and taught by the author, this manual equips readers with the skills and knowledge needed to design a wastewater treatment plant and handle various types of industrial wastes. With its emphasis on design issues and practical considerations, the manual enables readers to master treatment techniques for managing a wide range of industrial wastes, including oil, blood and protein, milk, plating, refinery, and phenolic and chemical plant wastes.
A key topic presented in the manual is biological modeling for designing wastewater treatment plants. The author demonstrates how these models lead to both more efficient and more economical plants.
As a practical training tool, this manual contains a number of features to assist readers in tackling complex, real-world problems, including:
* Examples and worked problems throughout the manual demonstrate how various treatment plants and treatment techniques work
* Figures and diagrams help readers visualize and understand complex design issues
* References as well as links to online resources serve as a gateway to additional information
* Practical design hints, stemming from the author's extensive experience, help readers save time and avoid unwanted and expensive pitfalls
* Clear and logically organized presentation has been developed and refined based on an AIChE course taught by the author in the United States, Mexico, and Venezuela
Whether a novice or experienced practitioner, any engineer who deals with the treatment of industrial waste will find a myriad of practical advice and useful techniques that they can immediately apply to solve problems in wastewater treatment.
Salts and Ions in Water.
Principal Contaminants and Ions in Water and Measurement Methods.
Sources of Water.
Water Quality Regulations—Legal Structure.
Rules and Regulations for Water Quality Control.
Drinking Water Quality Standards: USA and International Standards.
2 Effects of Pollution.
Effluent Toxicity Testing.
Oxygen Depletion—Biochemical Oxygen Demand.
Oxygen Uptake in a Stream—The Oxygen Sag Equation.
Biology of Polluted Water.
3 Flow Measurement.
Review of Open Channel Hydraulics.
Determining Normal and Gradually Varied Flows.
Types of Flowmeters.
4 Sampling and Statistical Considerations.
Errors in Process Measurements.
5 Important Concepts from Aquatic Chemistry.
Common Ion Species.
Most Important Chemicals in the Water Environment.
Chemical Water Softening.
Excess Lime Process.
Metals Removal by Precipitation.
Chromium Reduction and Metals Precipitation.
Silicates in Treatment Systems.
6 Elements of Biological Treatment.
BOD and COD Solids.
Biological Growth Equation.
Biological Growth & the Monod Equation.
Principles of Biological Treatment Systems.
Activated Sludge & Its Varations.
Biological Treatment of Difficult Wastes.
Modeling the Biological Process.
Available Commercial Modeling Tools.
The IWA Models for Activated Sludge.
7 Precipitation and Sedimentation.
Theory of Sedimentation.
Clarifiers and Their Design.
Lamellas and Specialty Devices.
8 Filtration Theory and Practice.
Depth Filters Design: Theory and Practice.
Hydraulics of Filter Washing.
Filter Elements and Design.
Rate of Kill—Disinfection Parameters.
Status of U.S. Drinking Water.
Other Disinfecting Compounds.
10 Nitrogen Removal.
Nitrogen Chemistry and Forms.
Ammonia Toxicity and Nitrogen Loading.
Mixed Media and Attached Growth Systems.
11 Phosphorous Removal.
Biological Phosphorous Removal.
Chemical Phosphorous Removal.
12 Anaerobic Treatment.
Basic Anaerobic Processes.
Anaerobic Digester Model ADM1.
Introduction to Membrane Separations and Microfiltration.
14 Reverse Osmosis.
Mass Transfer Theory.
RO Design Considerations.
15 Carbon Adsorption.
The Freundlich and the Langmuir Equations.
Carbon Adsorption Physical Coefficients and Economics.
16 Ion Exchange.
17 Dissolved Air Flotation and Techniques.
Design Basics for DAF.
18 Coagulation, Flocculation, and Chemical Treatment.
Flocculation and Mixing.
19 Waste Topics.
Blood and Protein.
Metal Plating Wastes.
Phenols and Chemical Plant Wastes.
Small Waste Flows.
"…a teaching and training tool for chemical, civil, and environmental engineers." (Journal of the American Water Resources Association, October 2006)