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Practical Wastewater Treatment

ISBN: 978-0-471-78044-1
288 pages
September 2006
Practical Wastewater Treatment (0471780448) cover image
Practical techniques for handling industrial waste and designing treatment facilities

Practical Wastewater Treatment is designed as a teaching and training tool for chemical, civil, and environmental engineers. Based on an AIChE training course, developed and taught by the author, this manual equips readers with the skills and knowledge needed to design a wastewater treatment plant and handle various types of industrial wastes. With its emphasis on design issues and practical considerations, the manual enables readers to master treatment techniques for managing a wide range of industrial wastes, including oil, blood and protein, milk, plating, refinery, and phenolic and chemical plant wastes.

A key topic presented in the manual is biological modeling for designing wastewater treatment plants. The author demonstrates how these models lead to both more efficient and more economical plants.

As a practical training tool, this manual contains a number of features to assist readers in tackling complex, real-world problems, including:
* Examples and worked problems throughout the manual demonstrate how various treatment plants and treatment techniques work
* Figures and diagrams help readers visualize and understand complex design issues
* References as well as links to online resources serve as a gateway to additional information
* Practical design hints, stemming from the author's extensive experience, help readers save time and avoid unwanted and expensive pitfalls
* Clear and logically organized presentation has been developed and refined based on an AIChE course taught by the author in the United States, Mexico, and Venezuela

Whether a novice or experienced practitioner, any engineer who deals with the treatment of industrial waste will find a myriad of practical advice and useful techniques that they can immediately apply to solve problems in wastewater treatment.
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1 Introduction.

Introduction.

Water Composition.

Pure Water.

Salts and Ions in Water.

Principal Contaminants and Ions in Water and Measurement Methods.

Sources of Water.

Water Quality.

Water Quality Regulations—Legal Structure.

Rules and Regulations for Water Quality Control.

Applications.

Sample Problem.

Solution.

Drinking Water Quality Standards: USA and International Standards.

2 Effects of Pollution.

Effluent Toxicity Testing.

Oxygen Depletion—Biochemical Oxygen Demand.

Oxygen Uptake in a Stream—The Oxygen Sag Equation.

Biology of Polluted Water.

3 Flow Measurement.

Review of Open Channel Hydraulics.

Determining Normal and Gradually Varied Flows.

Types of Flowmeters.

Weir Plates.

4 Sampling and Statistical Considerations.

Errors in Process Measurements.

Statistical Distributions.

Lognormal Distributions.

Weibull Distributions.

Probable Error.

Repeat Measurements.

Sampling.

5 Important Concepts from Aquatic Chemistry.

Common Ion Species.

Most Important Chemicals in the Water Environment.

Carbonate Chemistry.

Chemical Water Softening.

Excess Lime Process.

Metals Removal by Precipitation.

Heavy Metals.

Chromium Reduction and Metals Precipitation.

Silicates in Treatment Systems.

Nitrogen.

Sulfur.

Phosphorous.

6 Elements of Biological Treatment.

Introduction.

BOD and COD Solids.

Suspended Solids.

Biological Growth Equation.

Biological Growth & the Monod Equation.

Principles of Biological Treatment Systems.

Activated Sludge & Its Varations.

Biological Treatment of Difficult Wastes.

Modeling the Biological Process.

Steady.

JASS.

Scilab/SeTS.

Available Commercial Modeling Tools.

Modeling Guidance.

The IWA Models for Activated Sludge.

7 Precipitation and Sedimentation.

Theory of Sedimentation.

Clarifiers and Their Design.

Lamellas and Specialty Devices.

8 Filtration Theory and Practice.

Depth Filters Design: Theory and Practice.

Filtration Hydraulics.

Hydraulics of Filter Washing.

Skin Filters.

Filter Elements and Design.

9 Disinfection.

General.

Rate of Kill—Disinfection Parameters.

Status of U.S. Drinking Water.

Chlorine.

Ozone.

Ultraviolet Light.

Other Disinfecting Compounds.

10 Nitrogen Removal.

Nitrogen Chemistry and Forms.

Ammonia Toxicity and Nitrogen Loading.

Nitrate.

Nitrogen Removals.

Mixed Media and Attached Growth Systems.

Conclusions.

11 Phosphorous Removal.

General.

Biological Phosphorous Removal.

Chemical Phosphorous Removal.

12 Anaerobic Treatment.

Basic Anaerobic Processes.

Anaerobic Pretreatment.

Sludge Digestion.

Sludge Treatment.

Anaerobic Digester Model ADM1.

13 Micro/Ultrafiltration.

Introduction to Membrane Separations and Microfiltration.

Design Values.

Process Selection.

14 Reverse Osmosis.

Introduction.

Mass Transfer Theory.

Membrane Selection.

Membrane Materials.

Membrane Configurations.

RO Design Considerations.

Design Parameters.

15 Carbon Adsorption.

Breakthrough Curves.

The Freundlich and the Langmuir Equations.

Carbon Adsorption Physical Coefficients and Economics.

PACTTM Process.

16 Ion Exchange.

Introduction.

Resins.

Selectivity.

Selectivity Coefficient.

Design Considerations.

17 Dissolved Air Flotation and Techniques.

Design Basics for DAF.

Operating Parameters.

Electroflotation.

Electrocoagulation.

18 Coagulation, Flocculation, and Chemical Treatment.

Introduction.

Flocculation and Mixing.

Practice.

Modeling.

19 Waste Topics.

Oily Wastewaters.

Blood and Protein.

Milk Wastes.

Refinery Wastes.

Metal Plating Wastes.

Starch Wastes.

Phenols and Chemical Plant Wastes.

Small Waste Flows.

Final Thoughts.

Index.

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DAVID L. RUSSELL, PE, runs his own consulting engineering business, Global Environmental Operations, Inc. He has more than thirty years of experience in the environmental business, including nine years working in the chemical process industry dealing with pollution control. He has taught numerous short courses on wastewater treatment and pollution control and published several articles in the field as well.
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"…a clear, concise, coverage of water pollution control from a practical standpoint." (Journal of Hazardous Materials, March 6, 2007)

"…a teaching and training tool for chemical, civil, and environmental engineers." (Journal of the American Water Resources Association, October 2006)

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