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Electrokinetic and Colloid Transport Phenomena

ISBN: 978-0-471-78882-9
736 pages
June 2006
Electrokinetic and Colloid Transport Phenomena (0471788821) cover image
A new, definitive perspective of electrokinetic and colloid transport processes

Responding to renewed interest in the subject of electrokinetics, Electrokinetic and Colloid Transport Phenomena is a timely overview of the latest research and applications in this field for both the beginner and the professional. An outgrowth of an earlier text (by coauthor Jacob Masliyah), this self-contained reference provides an up-to-date summary of the literature on electrokinetic and colloid transport phenomena as well as direct pedagogical insight into the development of the subject over the past several decades.

A distinct departure from standard colloid science monographs, Electrokinetic and Colloid Transport Phenomena presents the most salient features of the theory in a simple and direct manner, allowing the book to serve as a stepping-stone for further learning and study. In addition, the book uniquely discusses numerical simulation of electrokinetic problems and demonstrates the use of commercial finite element software for solving these multiphysics problems. Among the topics covered are:
* Mathematical preliminaries
* Colloidal systems
* Electrostatics and application of electrostatics
* Electric double layer
* Electroosmosis and streaming potential
* Electrophoresis and sedimentation potential
* London-Van der Waals forces and the DLVO theory
* Coagulation and colloid deposition
* Numerical simulation of electrokinetic phenomena
* Applications of electrokinetic phenomena


Because this thorough reference does not require advanced mathematical knowledge, it enables a graduate or a senior undergraduate student approaching the subject for the first time to easily interpret the theories. On the other hand, the application of relevant mathematical principles and the worked examples are extremely useful to established researchers and professionals involved in a wide range of areas, including electroosmosis, streaming potential, electrophoretic separations, industrial practices involving colloids and complex fluids, environmental remediation, suspensions, and microfluidic systems.
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PREFACE.

COPYRIGHT ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

CHAPTER 1 MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES.

1.1 Units.

1.2 Physical Constants and Conversion Factors.

1.3 Frequently used Functions.

1.4 Vector Operations.

1.5 Tensor Operations.

1.6 Vector and Tensor Integral Theorems.

1.7 References.

CHAPTER 2 COLLOIDAL SYSTEMS.

2.1 The Colloidal State.

2.2 Colloidal Phenomena.

2.3 Stabilization of Colloids.

2.4 Preparation of Colloidal Systems.

2.5 Purification of Sols.

2.6 A Historical Summary.

2.7 Electrokinetic Phenomena in Modern Colloid Science.

2.8 Nomenclature.

2.9 References.

CHAPTER 3 ELECTROSTATICS.

3.1 Basic Electrostatics in Free Space.

3.2 Summary of Electrostatic Equations in Free Space.

3.3 Electrostatic Classification of Materials.

3.4 Basic Electrostatics in Dielectrics.

3.5 Boundary Conditions for Electrostatic Equations.

3.6 Maxwell Stress for a Linear Dielectric.

3.7 Maxwell’s Equations of Electromagnetism.

3.8 Nomenclature.

3.9 References.

CHAPTER 4 APPLICATION OF ELECTROSTATICS.

4.1 Two-Dimensional Dielectric Slab in an External Electric Field.

4.2 A Dielectric Sphere in an External Electric Field.

4.3 A Conducting Sphere in an External Electric Field.

4.4 Charged Disc and Two Parallel Discs in a Dielectric Medium.

4.5 Point Charges in a Dielectric Medium.

4.6 Nomenclature.

4.7 Problems.

4.8 References.

CHAPTER 5 ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER.

5.1 Electric Double Layers at Charged Interfaces.

5.2 Potential for Planar Electric Double Layer.

5.3 Potential for Curved Electric Double Layer.

5.4 Electrostatic Interaction between Two Planar Surfaces.

5.5 Electrostatic Potential Energy.

5.6 Electrostatic Interactions between Curved Geometries.

5.6.1 The Derjaguin Approximation.

5.7 Models of Surface Potentials.

5.8 Zeta Potential.

5.9 Summary of Gouy–Chapman Model.

5.10 Nomenclature.

5.11 Problems.

5.12 References.

CHAPTER 6 FUNDAMENTAL TRANSPORT EQUATIONS.

6.1 Single-Component System.

6.2 Multicomponent Systems.

6.3 Hydrodynamics of Colloidal Systems.

6.4 Summary of Governing Equations.

6.5 Nomenclature.

6.6 Problems.

6.7 References.

CHAPTER 7 ELECTROKINETIC PHENOMENA.

7.1 Electroosmosis.

7.2 Streaming Potential.

7.3 Electrophoresis.

7.4 Sedimentation Potential.

7.5 Non-Equilibrium Processes and Onsager Relationships.

7.6 Nomenclature.

7.7 References.

CHAPTER 8 FLOW IN MICROCHANNELS.

8.1 Liquid Flow in Channels.

8.2 Electroosmotic Flow in a Slit Charged Microchannel.

8.3 Electroosmotic Flow in a Closed Slit Microchannel.

8.4 Effectiveness of Electroosmotic Flow.

8.5 Electric Current in Electroosmotic Flow in Slit Channels.

8.6 Streaming Potential in Slit Channels.

8.7 Electroviscous Flow in Slit Microchannels.

8.8 Electroosmotic flow in a Circular Charged Capillary.

8.9 High Surface Potential.

8.10 Surface Conductance.

8.11 Solute Dispersion in Microchannels.

8.12 Nomenclature.

8.13 Problems.

8.14 References.

CHAPTER 9 ELECTROPHORESIS.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Electrophoresis of a Single Charged Sphere.

9.3 Improved Solutions: Arbitrary Debye Length.

9.4 Electrophoretic Mobility in Concentrated Suspensions.

9.5 Circular Cylinders Normal to the Electric Field.

9.6 Nomenclature.

9.7 Problems.

9.8 References.

CHAPTER 10 SEDIMENTATION POTENTIAL.

10.1 Sedimentation of Uncharged Spherical Particles.

10.2 Concept of Sedimentation Potential and Velocity.

10.3 Dilute Suspensions: Ohshima’s Model.

10.4 Sedimentation Potential of Concentrated Suspensions.

10.5 Nomenclature.

10.6 Problems.

10.7 References.

CHAPTER 11 LONDON–VAN DERWAALS FORCES ANDTHE DLVOTHEORY.

11.1 Dispersion Forces Between Bodies in Vacuum.

11.2 Hamaker’s Approach.

11.3 Effects of Intervening Medium.

11.4 DLVO Theory of Colloidal Interactions.

11.5 Schulze–Hardy Rule.

11.6 Verification of the DLVO Theory.

11.7 Limitations of DLVO Theory.

11.8 Nomenclature.

11.9 Problems.

11.10 References.

CHAPTER 12 COAGULATION OF PARTICLES.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Dynamics of Coagulation.

12.3 Brownian Motion.

12.4 Collision Frequency.

12.5 Brownian Coagulation.

12.6 Coagulation due to Shear.

12.7 Nomenclature.

12.8 Problems.

12.9 References.

CHAPTER 13 DEPOSITION OF COLLOIDAL PARTICLES.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Classical Deposition Mechanisms.

13.3 Eulerian Approach.

13.4 Lagrangian Approach.

13.5 Deposition Efficiency and Sherwood Number.

13.6 Experimental Verifications.

13.7 Application of Deposition Theory.

13.8 Summary of Dimensionless Groups.

13.9 Nomenclature.

13.10 Problems.

13.11 References.

CHAPTER 14 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ELECTROKINETIC PHENOMENA.

14.1 Tools and Methods for Computer Based Simulations.

14.2 Numerical Solution of the Poisson–Boltzmann Equation.

.2.6 Validation of Numerical Results.

14.3 Flow of Electrolyte in a Charged Cylindrical Capillary.

in a Capillary Microchannel.

14.4 Analysis of Electrophoretic Mobility.

14.5 Concluding Remarks.

14.6 Nomenclature.

14.7 Problems.

14.8 References.

CHAPTER 15 ELECTROKINETIC APPLICATIONS.

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Electrokinetic Salt Rejection in Porous Media and Membranes.

15.3 Electroosmotic Control of HazardousWastes.

15.4 Iontophoretic Delivery of Drugs.

15.5 Flotation of Oil Droplets and Fine Particles.

15.6 Rheology of Colloidal Suspensions.

15.7 Bitumen Extraction From Oil Sands.

15.8 Microfluidic and Nanofluidic Applications.

15.9 Nomenclature.

15.10 References.

INDEX.

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JACOB H. MASLIYAH, PhD, is a Professor of Chemical Engineering and a University Professor at the University of Alberta, Canada, and has published over 270 papers in the area of transport phenomena. He currently holds the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Chair in Oil Sands Engineering. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Engineering.

SUBIR BHATTACHARJEE, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering and is the Canada Research Chair in Colloids and Complex Fluids at the University of Alberta, Canada. He has published research papers in areas including colloidal interactions and transport, electrokinetic processes, novel separations, microfluidics, and atomic force microscopy.

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"The book is highly recommended for advanced graduate students who need solid understanding of this research area." (CHOICE, January 2007)
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