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Science and Technology of Polymer Nanofibers

ISBN: 978-0-471-79059-4
404 pages
August 2008
Science and Technology of Polymer Nanofibers (0471790591) cover image
Discover new and emerging applications of polymer nanofibers alongside the basic underlying science and technology. With discussions exploring such practical applications as filters, fabrics, sensors, catalysts, scaffolding, drug delivery, and wound dressings, the book provides polymer scientists and engineers with a comprehensive, practical "how-to" reference. Moreover, the author offers an expert assessment of polymer nanofibers' near-term potential for commercialization. Among the highlights of coverage is the book's presentation of the science and technology of electrospinning, including practical information on how to electrospin different polymer systems.
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Preface.

Acknowledgments.

1 Introduction.

1.1 Historical Background.

1.2 Basic Experimental Approach.

1.3 Description of Electrostatic Spinning.

1.4 Nanofiber Applications Areas.

2 Introduction to Polymer Solutions.

2.1 Average Molecular Weight.

2.2 Selecting Solvents: Solubility Parameter.

2.3 Thermodynamic Criterion for Solubility.

2.4 Macromolecular Models.

2.5 Viscosity of Dilute Polymer Solutions.

2.6 Concentrated Polymer Solutions.

3 Electrospinning Basics.

3.1 Molecular Weight Effects 56

3.2 Electrical Charge.

3.3 Bead Formation in Electrospinning.

3.4 Introduction to Electrospinning Practice.

4 Factors Affecting Nanofiber Quality.

4.1 The Polymer Solution.

4.2 Environment.

4.3 Collector.

4.4 Applied Potential.

4.5 Feed Rate.

4.6 Capillary Tip.

4.7 Gap Distance.

4.8 Relative Importance of Variables.

4.9 Examples of Reported Data.

5 Characterization of Nanofibers and Mats.

5.1 Mat Porosity and Pore Size Distribution.

5.2 Nanofiber Diameters and Pore Sizes by Microscopy.

5.3 Mechanical Properties of Mats.

5.4 Single-Fiber Characterization.

5.5 Nanofiber Crystallinity.

6 Composite Nanofibers.

6.1 Carbon Nanotubes in Nanofibers.

6.2 Metal–Nanofiber Composites.

6.3 Polymer–Clay Composites.

6.4 Decorated or Exocomposite Nanofibers.

7 Biomedical Applications of Nanofibers.

7.1 Drug Delivery Applications.

7.2 Scaffolding Applications of Nanofibers.

7.2.1 Natural Biopolymers.

7.3 Other Applications.

7.4 Future Directions.

8 Applications of Nanofiber Mats.

8.1 Introduction to Air Filtration.

8.2 Nanofiber Sensors.

8.3 Inorganic Nanofibers.

9 Recent Developments in Electrospinning.

9.1 Nanofibers with Surface Porosity.

9.2 Core–Shell Nanofibers.

9.3 Highly Aligned Nanofiber Mats.

9.4 Mixed Polymer Nanofibers and Nanofiber Mats.

9.5 Crosslinked Nanofibers.

Appendix I. Electrospun Polymers Used in Tissues Engineering and biomedical Applications.

Appendix II: Summary Table of Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers.

References.

Index.

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Anthony L. Andrady, PhD, is a Senior Research Scientist at Research Triangle Institute (RTI). He holds adjunct faculty positions at North Carolina State University (Department of Chemical Engineering) and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Department of Surgery). In his present position at RTI, he serves as Technical Manager of R&D for electrospinning of polymer nanofibers. Previously, he worked at Monsanto (Corporate R&D Center) and the University of Cincinnati Polymer Research Center. Dr. Andrady is a Fellow of both the Royal Society of Chemistry and the National College of Rubber Technology (London, England). He edited Plastics and the Environment (Wiley).
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"As a clinical scientist interested in nanotechnology applications for tissue engineering, I have found Andrady's book, "Science and Technology of Polymer Nanofibers" to be an extremely useful resource. It is well written, and comprehensively lays out the "nuts and bolts" of working with nanofibers. The ideas covered in the book will help to expand our capacity to use nanofibers effectively in living systems."
John A. van Aalst, MD - Director of Pediatric and Craniofacial Plastic Surgery at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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