Design with Constructal Theory
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List of Symbols.
1. Flow Systems.
1.1 Constructal Law, Vascularization, and Svelteness.
1.2 Fluid Flow.
1.3 Heat Transfer.
2.1 Evolution toward the Least Imperfect Possible.
2.3 Closed Systems.
2.4 Open Systems.
2.5 Analysis of Engineering Components.
2.6 Heat Transfer Imperfection.
2.7 Fluid Flow Imperfection.
2.8 Other Imperfections.
2.9 Optimal Size of Heat Transfer Surface.
3. Simple Flow Configurations.
3.1 Flow Between Two Points.
3.2 River Channel Cross-Sections.
3.3 Internal Spacings for Natural Convection.
3.4 Internal Spacings for Forced Convection.
3.5 Method of Intersecting the Asymptotes.
3.6 Fitting the Solid to the “Body” of the Flow.
3.7 Evolution of Technology: From Natural to Forced Convection.
4. Tree Networks for Fluid Flow.
4.1 Optimal Proportions: T- and Y -Shaped Constructs.
4.2 Optimal Sizes, Not Proportions.
4.3 Trees Between a Point and a Circle.
4.4 Performance versus Freedom to Morph.
4.5 Minimal-Length Trees.
4.6 Strategies for Faster Design.
4.7 Trees Between One Point and an Area.
4.9 Three-Dimensional Trees.
4.10 Loops, Junction Losses and Fractal-Like Trees.
5. Configurations for Heat Conduction.
5.1 Trees for Cooling a Disc-Shaped Body.
5.2 Conduction Trees with Loops.
5.3 Trees at Micro and Nanoscales.
5.4 Evolution of Technology: From Forced Convection to Solid-Body Conduction.
6. Multiscale Configurations.
6.1 Distribution of Heat Sources Cooled by Natural Convection.
6.2 Distribution of Heat Sources Cooled by Forced Convection.
6.3 Multiscale Plates for Forced Convection.
6.4 Multiscale Plates and Spacings for Natural Convection.
6.5 Multiscale Cylinders in Crossflow.
6.6 Multiscale Droplets for Maximum Mass Transfer Density.
7. Multiobjective Configurations.
7.1 Thermal Resistance versus Pumping Power.
7.2 Elemental Volume with Convection.
7.3 Dendritic Heat Convection on a Disc.
7.4 Dendritic Heat Exchangers.
7.5 Constructal Heat Exchanger Technology.
7.6 Tree-Shaped Insulated Designs for Distribution of Hot Water.
8. Vascularized Materials.
8.1 The Future Belongs to the Vascularized: Natural Design Rediscovered.
8.2 Line-to-Line Trees.
8.3 Counterflow of Line-to-Line Trees.
8.4 Self-Healing Materials.
8.5 Vascularization Fighting against Heating.
8.6 Vascularization Will Continue to Spread.
9. Configurations for Electrokinetic Mass Transfer.
9.1 Scale Analysis of Transfer of Species through a Porous System.
9.3 Migration through a Finite Porous Medium.
9.4 Ionic Extraction.
9.5 Constructal View of Electrokinetic Transfer.
10. Mechanical and Flow Structures Combined.
10.1 Optimal Flow of Stresses.
10.2 Cantilever Beams.
10.3 Insulating Wall with Air Cavities and Prescribed Strength.
10.4 Mechanical Structures Resistant to Thermal Attack.
11. Quo Vadis Constructal Theory?
11.1 The Thermodynamics of Systems with Configuration.
11.2 Two Ways to Flow Are Better than One.
11.3 Distributed Energy Systems.
11.4 Scaling Up.
11.5 Survival via Greater Performance, Svelteness and Territory.
11.6 Science as a Consructal Flow Architecture.
A. The Method of Scale Analysis.
B. Method of Undetermined Coefficients (Lagrange Multipliers).
C. Variational Calculus.
E. Conversion Factors.
F. Dimensionless Groups.
G. Nonmetallic Solids.
H. Metallic Solids.
I. Porous Materials.