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Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture

Josianne Stottrup (Editor), Lesley McEvoy (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-632-05495-4
340 pages
May 2003, Wiley-Blackwell
Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture (0632054956) cover image
As the expansion in world aquaculture continues at a very high rate, so does the need for information on feeding of cultivated fish and shellfish. In the larval and juvenile phases of many species, the use of manufactured feed is not possible. This important book covers in detail the biology and culture of the main live prey and microalgae used as feeds in the aquaculture of major commercial species including shrimps, sea bass, halibut, cod and bivalves.

Contents include comprehensive details of the status of marine aquaculture in relation to live prey, and chapters covering the biology, production, harvesting, processing and nutritional value of microalgae and the main prey species: rotifers, Artemia and copepods.

The editors have drawn together an impressive international team of contributors, providing a work that is set to become the standard reference and practical guide on the subject for many years to come.

Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture is an essential purchase for anyone involved in marine aquaculture, including fish farmers, researchers, and personnel in feed and equipment companies supplying the aquaculture trade. An extremely valuable tool as a reference and practical manual for students and professionals alike; libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological and aquatic sciences and aquaculture are studied and taught, should have copies available on their shelves.

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1. Status of marine aquaculture in relation to live prey: past, present and future.

1.1 An historical perspective.

1.2 Marine aquaculture today and in the future.

1.3 The status of larviculture and live feed usage.

1.4 Why is live feed necessary?

1.5 Problems and prospects with alternatives to live feed.

1.6 Conclusions.

1.7 References.

2. Production and nutritional value of rotifers.

2.1 General introduction.

2.2 Biology and morphological characteristics of rotifers.

2.2.1 General biology.

2.2.2 Taxonomy.

2.2.2.1 The genus Brachionus.

2.2.3 Morphology and physiology.

2.2.3.1 Feeding.

2.2.3.2 Digestion.

2.2.3.3 Body fluids and excretion.

2.2.3.4 Movement.

2.2.3.5 Nervous system and sensory organs.

2.2.4 Reproduction.

2.2.4.1 Asexual and sexual reproduction.

2.2.4.2 Reproductive rates.

2.2.4.3 Sexual reproduction and resting egg formation.

2.3. Culturing rotifers.

2.3.1. Selection of species and/or strain.

2.3.2 Maintaining water quality in culture tanks.

2.3.2.1 Organic particles.

2.3.2.2 Bacteria and other organisms in the culture tanks.

2.3.3. Choosing the most appropriate culture techniques.

2.3.3.1. Small-scale laboratory cultures.

2.3.3.2. Mass cultures.

2.4. Advanced warning on state of cultures.

2.4.1 Egg ratio.

2.4.2 Swimming velocity.

2.4.3 Ingestion rate.

2.4.4 Viscosity.

2.4.5 Enzyme activity.

2.4.6 Diseases.

2.5. Nutritional quality of rotifers.

2.5.1 Number of rotifers consumed by larvae.

2.5.2 Dry weight and caloric value.

2.5.3 Biochemical composition.

2.5.3.1 Protein and carbohydrate contents.

2.5.3.2 Lipid composition.

2.5.3.3 Vitamin enrichments.

2.5.4 Effect of starvation.

2.6. Preserved rotifers.

2.6.1. Preservation at low temperatures.

2.6.2 Cryopreservation.

2.6.3 Resting eggs.

2.7. Future directions.

2. 8. References.

3. Biology, tank production and nutritional value of Artemia.

3.1. Introduction.

3.2. Biology of Artemia.

3.2.1. Morphology and life cycle.

3.2.2. Ecology and natural distribution.

3.2.3. Taxonomy.

3.2.4. Strain-specific characteristics.

3.2.4.1 Size and energy content.

3.2.4.2 Hatching quality.

3.2.4.3 Diapause characteristics.

3.2.4.4 Growth rate of nauplii.

3.2.4.5 Temperature and salinity tolerance.

3.2.4.6 Life history traits and reproductive capacity.

3.2.4.7 Nutritional value.

3.2.5. Cyst biology and diapause.

3.2.5.1. Cyst morphology and physiology.

3.2.5.2. Cyst metabolism and hatching.

3.2.5.3. Diapause.

3.3. Production methods.

3.3.1. Tank production of Artemia biomass.

3.3.1.1 Advantages of tank production and tank produced biomass.

3.3.1.2. Physico-chemical conditions.

3.3.1.3. Artemia strain selection and culture density.

3.3.1.4. Feeding.

3.3.1.5. Infrastructure.

3.3.1.6. Culture techniques.

3.3.1.7. Control of infections.

3.3.1.8. Harvest and processing of cultured Artemia.

3.3.1.9. Production figures of intensive Artemia cultures.

3.4 Biochemical composition.

3.4.1. Proximate composition.

3.4.2. Lipids.

3.4.3. Proteins.

3.4.4. Vitamins.

3.5. Applications of Artemia.

3.5.1 The future use of Artemia in aquaculture.

3.5.2. Hatching.

3.5.3. Harvesting hatched nauplii.

3.5.4. Decapsulation.

3.5.5. Enrichment.

3.5.6. Cold storage.

3.5.7. Use of juvenile and adult Artemia.

3.6. References.

4. Production, harvest and processing of Artemia from natural lakes.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Pond production of Artemia cysts and biomass.

4.2.1. Permanent solar salt operations.

4.2.2. Seasonal units.

4.2.3. Site selection.

4.2.4. Pond adaptation.

4.2.5. Pond preparation.

4.2.6. Artemia inoculation.

4.2.7. Monitoring and managing the culture system.

4.3. Artemia harvesting and processing technique.

4.3.1. Harvesting techniques.

4.3.2. Processing techniques.

4.4. Artemia cyst harvesting and processing techniques.

4.4.1 Harvesting techniques.

4.4.2 Brine processing.

4.4.3 Freshwater processing.

4.4.4 Drying.

4.4.5 Pre-packaging, packaging and storage.

4.6 References.

5. Production and nutritional value of copepods.

5.1 General introduction.

5.2 Biology.

5.2.1. General characteristics.

5.2.1.1 Calanoida.

5.2.1.2 Harpacticoida.

5.2.1.3 Cyclopoida.

5.2.2 Copepod morphology and physiology.

5.2.1.1. Digestive system.

5.2.1.2. Circulatory system.

5.2.1.3. Nervous system.

5.2.1.4. Reproductive system.

5.2.2. Reproduction.

5.2.3. Resting or diapause eggs.

5.2.4. Development, size and growth.

5.2.4.1. Life cycle.

5.2.4.2. Mortality.

5.2.4.3. Size.

5.2.4.4. Generation time.

5.2.5. Feeding, food quality and food availability.

5.2.5.1. Calanoids - feeding.

5.2.5.2. Calanoids - ingestion rates.

5.2.5.3. Calanoids - egg production.

5.2.5.4. Harpacticoids - feeding.

5.2.5.5. Harpacticoids - egg production.

5.2.5.6. Calanoids - feeding.

5.3. Production methods.

5.3.1. Extensive and outdoor cultures.

5.3.1.1. Harvest of wild zooplankton.

5.3.1.2. Production in enclosed fjords or sea areas.

5.3.1.3. Production in outdoor ponds or large tanks.

5.3.2. Intensive culture of copepods.

5.3.2.1. Calanoids.

5.3.2.2. Harpacticoids.

5.3.2.3. Cyclopoids.

5.4. Biochemical composition.

5.5. Nutritional value for fish larvae.

5.6. Application in marine aquaculture.

5.7. References.

The microalgae of aquaculturegae of aquaculture.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2. Biology of microalgae.

6.2.1. General characteristics of microalgae.

6.2.2. Growth.

6.2.3. Substrates of photoautotrophy.

6.2.3.1. Light.

6.2.3.2. Mineral nutrients.

6.2.4. Substrates of heterotrophy.

6.2.5. Other factors affecting growth.

6.2.5.1. Temperature.

6.2.5.2. Salinity.

6.2.5.3. Metabolites.

6.2.5.4. pH.

6.2.5.5. Mixing.

6.3. Biochemical composition of microalgae.

6.3.1. Gross biochemical composition.

6.3.2. Vitamins.

6.3.3. Sterols.

6.3.3.1. Bacillariophyceae.

6.3.3.2. Prymnesiophycae.

6.3.3.3. Prasinophyceae.

6.3.3.4. Cryptophyceae.

6.3.4. Fatty acids.

6.3.4.1. Bacillariophyceae.

6.3.4.2. Prymnesiophycae.

6.3.4.3. Prasinophyceae.

6.3.4.4. Chlorophyceae.

6.3.4.5. Cryptophyceae.

6.3.4.6. Eustigmatophyceae.

6.4. Production methods for aquacultural microalgae.

6.4.1. State of the art of microalgal production techniques in hatcheries.

6.4.1.1. Asepsis and quality controls.

6.4.1.2. Culture medium and temperature.

6.4.1.3. Running the cultures.

6.4.1.4. Efficiency.

6.4.2. Methods of improvement.

6.4.2.1. Continuous cultures.

6.4.2.2. The increase in production yields.

6.4.3. Heterotrophic production.

6.4.4. Discussion.

6.4.5. References.

7. Uses of microalgae in aquaculture.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2. Microalgae as food for molluscs.

7.2.1. Microalgae as potential food source in mollusc hatcheries.

7.2.1.1. Size.

7.2.1.2. Digestibility.

7.2.1.3. Nutritional value: biochemical composition of microalgae.

7.2.1.4. Microalgae bulk production.

7.2.2. Microalgal requirements in mollusc hatcheries.

7.2.2.1. Feeding broodstock.

7.2.2.2. Feeding larvae.

7.2.2.3. Feeding spat.

7.2.3. Microalgal substitutes for bivalve feeding.

7.3. Microalgae as food for shrimp.

7.3.1. Development of penaeid shrimp.

7.3.2. Selection of algal species used for rearing shrimp larvae.

7.3.3. Ingestion and filtration rates for shrimp larvae fed microalgae.

7.3.4. Nutrient supply from algae in relation to larval shrimp requirements.

7.3.4.1. Substitution of spray-dried algae or microparticulate compound diets for live algae.

7.3.5. Other roles of algae in shrimp larval growth.

7.3.6. Feeding microalgae to shrimp juveniles and adults.

7.4. Microalgae as food for live prey.

7.4.1. Feding live prey with live algae.

7.4.2. Nutritional value of algae for live prey.

7.4.2.1. Proteins and proximate composition.

7.4.2.2. Fatty acids.

7.4.2.3. Other lipid components.

7.4.3. Vitamins.

7.4.4. Minerals.

7.4.5. Influence of algae on live feed and larval microbiology.

7.4.6. Substitutes for live microalgae.

7.5. Importance of microalgae in marine finfish larviculture.

7.5.1. Range of microalgal action.

7.5.2. Effects on endotrophic larval stages.

7.5.3. Effects on the yolk-sac drinking stage.

7.5.3.1. Drinking and ingestion of dissolved organics.

7.5.3.2. Ingestion of microalgae.

7.5.3.3. Digestion and assimilation of microalgae.

7.5.4. Resistance to delay in first zooplanktonic feeding.

7.5.5. Process and efficiency of first feeding.

7.5.6. Effect on survival and growth efficiency at first feeding.

7.5.7. Simulation of digestive functions and gut flora.

7.5.8. Effects on early exotrophic larvae.

7.5.9. Indirect effects of mircoalgae on larvae.

7.5.10. Future developments.

7.6. References.

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*Provides comprehensive coverage of the biology, culture methods and uses of live prey species in aquaculture
*Live prey species include shrimps, algae, and copepods and are cultured and fed to fish mainly in marine culture systems.
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"Overall, this book is a good reference source and will be a useful addition to the shelves, not only for aquaculturists but also for applied phycologists." (Journal of Applied Phycology)

"This book is recommended to everyone involved in the production or use of live feed in aquaculture." (Aquaculture Research)

"A comprehensive publication on the culture and use of live feeds in marine aquaculture is quite timely.... Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture not only provides an excellent summary of the use of traditional live food organisms, it also presents a considerable amount of information on organisms that have more recently come into prominence...The book provides an excellent review of the topic and contains a considerable amount of how-to information." (World Aquaculture)

"Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture is a book perfectly targeted to fill an important gap in education and research in a specialism that has grown hugely over recent years... I would recommend this book most highly for anyone interested in marine aquaculture." (Aquaculature News)

"Live Feeds in Marine Aquaculture is an essential purchase for anyone involved in marine aquaculture, including fish farmers, researchers and personnel in feed and equipment companies supplying the aquaculture trade. An extremely valuable tool as a reference and practical manual for students and professionals alike." (International Aquafeed, November 2005)

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