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Structural Masonry Designers' Manual, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-632-05612-5
350 pages
July 2006, Wiley-Blackwell
Structural Masonry Designers


This major handbook covers the structural use of brick and blockwork. A major feature is a series of step-by-step design examples of typical elements and buildings.

The book has been revised to include updates to the code of practice BS 5628:2000-2 and the 2004 version of Part A of the Building Regulations. New information on sustainability issues, innovation in masonry, health and safety issues and technical developments has been added.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction; 1.1 Present structural forms; 1.2 Examples of structural layout suiting masonry; 1.3 Reinforced and post-tensioned masonry; 1.4 Arches and vaults; 1.5 The robustness of masonry structures; 1.6 Prefabrication; 1.7 Future tradesmen; 1.8 Engineering education; Chapter 2 Advantages & disadvantages of structural masonry; 2.1 Engineering education; 2.1.1 Cost; 2.1.2 Speed of erection; 2.1.3 Aesthetics; 2.1.4 Durability; 2.1.5 Sound insulation; 2.1.6 Thermal insulation; 2.1.7 Fire resistance and accidental damage; 2.1.8 Capital and current energy requirements; 2.1.9 Resistance to movement; 2.1.10 Repair and maintenance; 2.1.11 Ease of combination with other materials; 2.1.12 Availability of materials and labour; 2.1.13 Recyclability; 2.2 Disadvantages; 2.2.1 Lack of education in masonry; 2.2.2 Increase in obstructed area over steel and reinforced concrete; 2.2.3 Problems with some isolated details; 2.2.4 Foundations; 2.2.5 Large openings; 2.2.6 Beams and slabs; 2.2.7 Control joints; 2.2.8 Health & safety considerations; Chapter 3 Design philosophy; 3.1 Strength of material; 3.2 Exploitation of cross-section; 3.3 Exploitation of essential building elements; Chapter 4 Limit state design; Chapter 5 Basis of design (1): vertical loading; 5.1 Compressive strength of masonry; 5.2 Characteristic strength and characteristic load; 5.3 Partial safety factors for loads; 5.4 Characteristic compressive strength of masonry; 5.4.1 Brickwork; 5.4.2 Blockwork; 5.4.3 Natural stone masonry and random rubble masonry; 5.4.4 Alternative construction techniques; 5.5 Partial safety factors for material strength; 5.5.1 Manufacturing control (BS 5628, clause 27.2.1); 5.5.2 Construction control; 5.6 Slenderness ratio; 5.7 Horizontal and vertical lateral supports; 5.7.1 Methods of compliance: Walls – horizontal lateral supports; 5.7.2 Methods of compliance: Walls – vertical lateral supports; 5.8 Effective height or length: Walls; 5.9 Effective thickness of walls; 5.9.1 Solid walls; 5.9.2 Cavity walls; 5.10 Loadbearing capacity reduction factor; 5.11 Design compressive strength of a wall; 5.12 Columns; 5.12.1 Slenderness ratio: Columns; 5.12.2 Columns formed by openings; 5.12.3 Design strength; 5.12.4 Columns or walls or small plan area; 5.13 Eccentric loading; 5.14 Combined effect of slenderness and eccentricity of load; 5.14.1 Walls; 5.14.2 Columns; 5.15 Concentrated loads; Chapter 6 Basis of design (2): lateral loading – tensile and shear strength; 6.1 Direct tensile stress; 6.2 Characteristic flexural strength (tensile) of masonry; 6.2.1 Orthogonal ration; 6.3 Moments of resistance: General; 6.3.1 Moments of resistance; uncracked sections; 6.3.2 Moments of resistance; Cracked sections; 6.4 Cavity Walls; 6.4.1 Vertical twist ties; 6.4.2 Double-triangle and wire butterfly ties; 6.4.3 Selection of ties; 6.4.4 Double-lead (collar-jointed) walls; 6.4.5 Grouted cavity walls; 6.4.6 Differing orthogonal ratios; 6.5 Effective eccentricity method of design; 6.6 Arch method of design; 6.6.1 Vertical arching; 6.6.2 Vertical arching: return walls; 6.6.3 Horizontal arching; 6.7 Free-standing walls; 6.7.1 General; 6.7.2 Design bending moments; 6.7.3 Design moment of resistance; 6.8 Retaining walls; 6.9 Panel walls; 6.9.1 Limiting dimensions; 6.9.2 Design methods; 6.9.3 Design bending moment; 6.9.4 Design moments of resistance; 6.9.5 Design of ties; 6.10 Propped cantilever wall design; 6.10.1 Geometric and other sections in shear; 6.11 Eccentricity of loading in plane of wall; 6.11.1 Design of walls loaded eccentrically in the plane of the wall; 6.12 Walls subjected to shear forces; 6.12.1 Characteristic and design shear strength; 6.12.2 Resistance to shear; Chapter 7 Strapping, propping and tying of loadbearing masonry; 7.1 Structural action; 7.2 Horizontal movement; 7.3 Shear keying between wall and floors; 7.4 Holding down roofs subject to upward forces; 7.5 Areas of concern; 7.6 Other factors influencing the details of connections; 7.7 Illustrated examples of strapping and tying; 7.8 Design examples: Straps and ties for a three-storey masonry building; Chapter 8 Stability, accidental damage and progressive collapse ;8.1 Progressive collapse; 8.2 Stability; 8.3 Accidental forces (BS 5628, clause 20); 8.4 During construction; 8.5 Extent of damage; 8.6 Design for accidental damage; 8.6.1 Partial safety factors; 8.6.2 Methods (options) of checking; 8.6.3 Loadbearing elements; 8.6.4 Protected member; 8.6.5 General notes; Chapter 9 Structural elements and forms; 9.1 Single-leaf walls; 9.2 Double-leaf collar-jointed walls; 9.3 Double-leaf cavity walls; 9.4 Double-leaf grouted cavity walls; 9.5 Faced walls; 9.6 Veneered walls; 9.7 Walls with improved section modulus; 9.7.1 Chevron or zig-zag walls; 9.7.2 Diaphragm walls; 9.7.3 Mass filled diaphragms; 9.7.4 Piered walls; 9.7.5 Fin walls; 9.8 Reinforced walls; 9.9 Post-tensioned walls; 9.10 Columns; 9.11 Arches; 9.12 Circular and elliptical tube construction; 9.13 Composite construction; 9.14 Horizontally reinforced masonry; 9.15 Chimneys; 9.16 Crosswall construction; 9.17 Cellular construction; 9.18 Column and plate floor construction; 9.19 Combined forms of construction; 9.20 Diaphragm wall and plate roof construction; 9.21 Fin wall and plate roof construction; 9.22 Miscellaneous wall and plate roof construction; 9.23 Spine wall construction; 9.24 Arch and buttressed construction; 9.25 Compression tube construction; Chapter 10 Design of masonry elements (1): Vertically loaded; 10.1 Principle of design; 10.2 Estimation of element size required; 10.3 Sequence of design; 10.4 Design of solid walls; 10.5 Design of cavity walls; 10.5.1 Ungrouted cavity walls; 10.5.2 Grouted cavity walls; 10.5.3 Double-leaf (or collar-jointed) walls; 10.6 Design of walls with stiffening piers; 10.7 Masonry columns; 10.8 Diaphragm walls; 10.9 Concentrated loads; Chapter 11 Design of masonry elements (2): Combined bending and axial loading; 11.1 Method of design; Chapter 12 Design of single-storey buildings; 12.1 Design considerations; 12.2 Design procedure; Chapter 13 Fin and diaphragm walls in tall single-storey buildings; 13.1 Comparison of fin and diaphragm walls; 13.2 Design and construction details; 13.3 Architectural design and detailing; 13.3.1 Services; 13.3.2 Sound and thermal insulation; 13.3.3 Damp proof courses and membranes; 13.3.4 Cavity cleaning; 13.4 Structural detailing; 13.4.1 Foundations; 13.4.2 Joints; 13.4.3 Wall opening; 13.4.4 Construction of capping beam; 13.4.5 Temporary propping and scaffolding; 13.5 Structural design: General; 13.5.1 Design principles: Propped cantilever; 13.5.2 Calculate design loadings; 13.5.3 Consider levels of critical stresses; 13.5.4 Design bending moments; 13.5.5 Stability moment of resistance; 13.5.6 Shear lag; 13.5.7 Principal tensile stress; 13.6 Design symbols: Fin and diaphragm walls; 13.7 Fin walls: Structural design considerations; 13.7.1 Interaction between leaves; 13.7.2 Spacing of fins; 13.7.3 Size of fins; 13.7.4 Effective section and trial section; 13.8 Example 1: fin wall; 13.8.1 Design problem; 13.8.2 Design approach; 13.8.3 Characteristic loads; 13.8.4 Design loads; 13.8.5 Design cases (as shown in figure 13.42); 13.8.6 Deflection of roof wind girder; 13.8.7 Effective flange width for T profile; 13.8.8 Spacing of fins; 13.8.9 Trial section; 13.8.10 Consider propped cantilever action; 13.8.11 Stability moment of resistance; 13.8.12 Allowable flexural compressive stresses; 13.8.13 Calculate MRs and compare with Mb; 13.8.14 Bending moment diagrams; 13.8.15 Consider stresses at level Mw; 13.8.16 Design flexural stress at Mw levels; 13.8.17 Consider fins and deflected roof prop; 13.9 Diaphragm wall: Structural design considerations; 13.9.1 Determination of rib centres, Br; 13.9.2 Depth of diaphragm wall and properties of sections; 13.9.3 Shear stress coefficient, K1; 13.9.4 Trial section coefficients, K2 and Z; 13.10 Example 2: Diaphragm wall; 13.10.1 Design problem; 13.10.2 Characteristic and design loads; 13.10.3 Select trial section; 13.10.4 Determine wind and moment MRs at base; 13.10.5 Consider the stress at level Mw; 13.10.6 Consider diaphragm with deflected roof prop; 13.10.7 Calculate the shear stress; 13.10.8 Stability of transverse shear walls; 13.10.9 Summary; 13.11 Other applications; Chapter 14 Design of multi-storey structures; 14.1 Structural forms; 14.1.1 Stability; 14.1.2 External walls; 14.1.3 Provision for services; 14.1.4 Movement joints; 14.1.5 Vertical alignment of loadbearing walls; 14.1.6 Foundations; 14.1.7 Flexibility; 14.1.8 Concrete roof slab/loadbearing wall connections; 14.1.9 Accidental damage; 14.1.10 Choice of brick, block and mortar strengths; 14.2 Crosswall construction; 14.2.1 Stability; 14.2.2 External cladding panel walls; 14.2.3 Design for wind; 14.2.4 Openings in walls; 14.2.5 Typical applications; 14.2.6 Elevational treatment of crosswall structures; 14.2.7 Podiums; 14.3 Spine construction; 14.3.1 Lateral stability; 14.3.2 Accidental damage; 14.4 Cellular construction; 14.4.1 Comparison with crosswall construction; 14.4.2 Envelope (cladding) area; 14.4.3 Robustness; 14.4.4 Flexibility; 14.4.5 Height of structure; 14.4.6 Masonry stresses; 14.4.7 Foundations; 14.5 Column structures; 14.5.1 Advantages; 14.5.2 Cross-sectional shape; 14.5.3 Size; 14.6 Design procedure; 14.7 Example 1: Hotel bedrooms, six floors; 14.7.1 Characteristic loads; 14.7.2 Design of internal crosswalls; 14.7.3 Partial safety factor for material strength (table 4, BS 5628 – see table 5.11); 14.7.4 Choice of brick in the two design cases, at ground floor level; 14.7.5 Choice of brick in the two design cases, at third flood level; 14.7.6 Design of gable cavity walls to resist lateral loads due to wind; 14.7.7 Uplift on roof; 14.7.8 Design of wall; 14.7.9 Calculation of design wall moment; 14.7.10 Resistance moment of wall (figure 14.46); 14.7.11 Overall stability check; 14.7.12 Eccentricity of loading; 14.7.13 Accidental damage; 14.8 Example 2: four-storey school building; 14.8.1 Characteristic loads; 14.8.2 Design of wall at ground floor level; 14.9 Example 3: four-storey office block; 14.9.1 Column structure for four-storey office block; 14.9.2 Characteristic loads; 14.9.3 Design of brick columns; 14.9.4 Loading on column P; Chapter 15 Reinforced and post tensioned masonry; 15.1 General; 15.1.1 Design theory; 15.1.2 Comparison with concrete; 15.1.3 Applications; 15.1.4 Prestressing; 15.1.5 Methods of reinforcing walls; 15.1.6 Composite construction; 15.1.7 Economics; 15.1.8 Corrosion of reinforcement and prestressing steel; 15.1.9 Cover to reinforcement and prestressing steel; 15.1.10 Cover; 15.2 Choice of system; 15.3 Design of reinforced brickwork; 15.3.1 Partial factors of safety; 15.3.2 Strength of materials; 15.3.3 Design for bending: reinforced masonry; 15.3.4 Lateral stability of beams; 15.3.5 Design formula for bending: moments of resistance for reinforced masonry; Walls with reinforcement concentrated locally, such as pocket type and similar walls; Locally reinforced hollow blockwork; 15.3.6 Design formula: shear stress; 15.3.7 Shear reinforcement; 15.3.8 Design formula: local bond; 15.3.9 Characteristic anchorage bond strength fb; 15.3.10 Design for axial loading; 15.4 Example 1: Design of reinforced brick beam; 15.5 Example 2: Alternative design for reinforced brick beam; 15.6 Example 3: Reinforced brick retaining wall; 15.7 Example 4: Column design; 15.8 Design for post-tensioned brickwork; 15.8.1 General; 15.8.2 Post-tensioned masonry: design for flexure; 15.8.3 Design strengths; 15.8.4 Steel stresses; 15.8.5 Asymmetrical sections; 15.8.6 Losses of post-tensioning force; 15.8.7 Bearing stresses; 15.8.8 Deflection; 15.8.9 Partial safety factor on post-tensioning force; 15.9 Example 5: High cavity wall with wind loading; 15.9.1 Capacity reduction factor, b; 15.9.2 Characteristic strengths; 15.9.3 Design strengths (after losses); 15.9.4 Section modulus of wall; 15.9.5 Design method; 15.9.6 Calculation of required post-tensioning force; 15.9.7 Consider compressive stresses: after losses; 15.9.8 Consider compressive stresses: before losses; 15.9.9 Design of post-tensioning rods; 15.10 Example 6: Post-tensioned fin wall; 15.10.1 Design procedure; 15.10.2 Design post-tensioning force and eccentricity; 15.10.3 Characteristic strengths; 15.10.4 Loadings; 15.10.5 Design bending moments; 15.10.6 Theoretical flexural tensile stresses; 15.10.7 Calculations of P and e; 15.10.8 Spread of post-tensioning force; 15.10.9 Characteristic post-tensioning force Pk; 15.10.10 Capacity reduction factors, â; 15.10.11 Check combined compressive stresses; 15.10.12 Design flexural compressive strengths of wall: after losses; 15.10.13 Check overall stability of wall; 15.11 Example 7: Post-tensioned, brick diaphragm, retaining wall; 15.11.1 Design procedure; 15.11.2 Design loads; 15.11.3 Trial section; 15.11.4 Calculate theoretical flexural tensile stresses; 15.11.5 Minimum required post-tensioning force based on bending stresses; 15.11.6 Characteristic post-tensioning force Pk; 15.11.7 Capacity reduction factors; 15.11.8 Check combined compressive stresses; 15.11.9 Check shear between leaf and cross-rib; 15.11.10 Design of post-tensioning rods; Chapter 16 Arches; 16.1 General design; 16.1.1 Linear arch; 16.1.2 Trial sections; 16.1.3 Mathematical analysis; 16.2 Design procedures; 16.3 Design examples; 16.3.1 Example 1: Footbridge arch; 16.3.2 Example 2: Segmental arch carrying traffic loading; 16.3.3 Example 3: Repeat example 2 using a pointed arch; Appendix 1 Materials; Appendix 2 Components; Appendix 3 Movement joints; Appendix 4 Provision for services
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Author Information

Curtins Consulting Engineers is a medium sized firm of structural engineers with 11 offices in the UK. They are well known for their work on foundations and have also authored another book with Blackwell Structural Masonry Designers’ Manual (third edition due 2005).

Dave Easterbrook - Lecturer, School of Engineering, University of Plymouth.

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The Wiley Advantage

* the leading handbook on the subject
* updated with the 2002 revisions to the code of practice and 2004 revisions to the Building Regulations
* written by a firm of consulting engineers who have pioneered structural masonry
* brickwork and blockwork good performing materials that are economic to use
* 'essential reading for all design offices ... the standard work on the subject.' - New Civil Engineer
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‘This is essential reading for all civil structural design offices involved with masonry design and is now established as the standard work on the subject.’ New Civil Engineer

‘This is an excellent reference … especially for sites with difficult ground conditions.’ The Structural Engineer

'Looks crisp and with a modern style of illustration, is easy to read for a technical manual. As a full and comprehensive review of structural masonry, authoritatively written and covering most of the aspects likely to be encountered in practice, it is a hugely useful manual.' Institution of Structural Engineers

'This book is a precious gift for the consulting/ design engineers and students.' Journal of Structural Engineering

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