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Veterinary Ectoparasites: Biology, Pathology and Control, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-632-05618-7
304 pages
August 2001, Wiley-Blackwell
Veterinary Ectoparasites: Biology, Pathology and Control, 2nd Edition (0632056185) cover image

Description

Ectoparasites are of growing significance in modern veterinary medicine and a detailed understanding of the biology of these parasites is fundamental to their appropriate treatment and control. The authors of this book have therefore provided a complete overview of the biology, and behaviour of arthropod ectoparasites along with the pathology and treatment of diseases in livestock and companion animals of temperate habitats.

This is the only up-to-date book available written specifically for practitioners and students of veterinary medicine, animal husbandry and applied animal sciences. Such a unique volume is essential because in veterinary parasitology, ectoparasites such as the lice, mites, ticks, fleas or dipteran agents of myiasis assume far greater prominence than in other parasitological disciplines. Ectoparasite infestation of domestic and companion animals, therefore, has overt clinical features requiring a distinct approach to diagnosis and control. This book has been written with this in mind. The text takes a unique integrated approach combining both ectoparasite biology and veterinary dermatology.

In the second edition of this successful book (previously, entitled Veterinary Parasitology), the detailed coverage of individual ectoparasite species has been expanded. Up-to-date information of new veterinary drugs and modes of application has been included and the practical clinical relevance of the information has been strengthened.

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Table of Contents

Preface to Second Edition ix

Acknowledgements x

Chapter 1 The Importance and Diversity of Arthropod Ectoparasites 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Ectoparasite±host relationships 1

1.3 Ectoparasite damage 2

1.4 The evolution of ectoparasite±host relationships 3

1.5 A modern and growing problem? 5

1.6 An introduction to arthropod structure and function 6

1.6.1 Arthropod segmentation 6

1.6.2 The arthropod exoskeleton 6

1.6.3 Jointed legs 8

1.6.4 Spiracles and gas exchange 8

1.6.5 The arthropod circulatory system 9

1.6.6 The arthropod nervous system 10

1.6.7 Digestion and absorption 11

1.6.8 Arthropod sense organs 12

1.6.9 Arthropod reproduction 13

1.6.10 Arthropod size 13

1.7 Patterns of arthropod development 14

1.7.1 Moulting 14

1.7.2 Simple and complex life-cycles 14

1.8 The classification of diversity 16

1.9 The origins of arthropods 16

1.10 Living arthropod groups 17

1.10.1 Arachnids 18

1.10.2 Insects 19

1.10.3 Other living arthropod classes 20

1.11 Arthropod distributions 21

Further reading and references 22

Chapter 2 Mites (Acari) 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Morphology 23

2.3 Life history 25

2.4 Pathology 26

2.5 Classification 26

2.5.1 Astigmata 26

2.5.2 Prostigmata 27

2.5.3 Mesostigmata 27

2.6 Recognition of mites of veterinary importance 27

2.7 Astigmata (Sacroptiformes) 27

2.7.1 Sarcoptidae 27

Guide to the suborders of Acari 28

Guide to species and families of veterinary importance 28

2.7.2 Psoroptidae 34

Guide to the identification of life-cycle stages of Psoroptes mites 36

2.7.3 Knemidocoptidae 40

2.7.4 Listrophoridae 41

2.7.5 Astigmatid mites of minor veterinary interest 43

2.8 Prostigmata (Trombidiformes) 44

2.8.1 Demodicidae 44

2.8.2 Cheyletiellidae 45

2.8.3 Trombiculidae 47

2.8.4 Psorergatidae 48

2.8.5 Prostigmatid mites of minor veterinary interest 49

2.9 Mesostigmata (Gamesid mites) 50

2.9.1 Macronyssidae 50

2.9.2 Dermanyssidae 52

2.9.3 Mesostigmatid mites of minor veterinary interest 53

Further reading and references 54

Chapter 3 Ticks (Acari) 55

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Morphology 55

3.2.1 Ixodidae 55

3.2.2 Argasidae 57

3.3 Life history 58

3.3.1 Ixodidae 58

3.3.2 Argasidae 60

3.4 Pathology 61

3.4.1 Cutaneous effects of tick feeding 61

3.4.2 Systemic effect: vectors of disease 61

3.4.3 Systemic effects: tick paralysis 64

3.4.4 Other systemic effects 65

3.5 Classification 65

3.6 Recognition of ticks of veterinary importance 65

Guide to tick identification 66

3.7 Ixodidae 67

3.7.1 Ixodes 67

3.7.2 Dermacentor 71

3.7.3 Haemaphysalis 74

3.7.4 Rhipicephalus 75

3.7.5 Boophilus 76

3.7.6 Amblyomma 77

3.7.7 Hyalomma 78

3.8 Argasidae 78

3.8.1 Argas 78

3.8.2 Otobius 80

3.8.3 Ornithodoros 80

Further reading and references 81

Chapter 4 Adult Flies (Diptera) 83

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Morphology 83

4.3 Life history 85

4.4 Pathology 86

4.5 Classification 87

4.5.1 Cyclorrhapha 87

4.5.2 Brachycera 88

4.5.3 Nematocera 88

4.6 Recognition of flies of veterinary importance 88

4.7 Cyclorrhapha 88

Guide to families of adult Diptera of veterinary importance 89

4.7.1 Muscidae 92

4.7.2 Fanniidae 97

4.7.3 Hippoboscidae (keds and forest flies) 98

4.7.4 Glossinidae (tsetse flies) 99

4.7.5 Cyclorrhaphous flies of minor veterinary interest 100

4.8 Brachycera 101

4.8.1 Tabanidae (horse flies, deer flies and clegs) 101

4.9 Nematocera 104

4.9.1 Simuliidae (black flies) 104

4.9.2 Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) 107

4.9.3 Culicidae (mosquitoes) 108

4.9.4 Psychodidae (sand flies) 110

4.10 Other Diptera of veterinary interest 111

4.10.1 Eye gnats 111

Further reading and references 112

Chapter 5 Myiasis 114

5.1 Introduction 114

5.2 Morphology 114

5.3 Life history 115

5.4 Pathology 116

5.5 Classification 116

5.6 Recognition of dipterous agents of myiasis 117

Guide to third-stage larvae causing myiasis in domestic animals 117

Guide to genera of adult Diptera causing myiasis in domestic animals 119

5.7 Oestridae 121

5.7.1 Oestrinae 121

5.7.2 Gasterophilinae 123

Guide to the third-stage larvae of the most important Gasterophilus species 124

5.7.3 Hypodermatinae 126

5.7.4 Cuterebrinae 129

5.8 Calliphoridae 130

5.8.1 Cochliomyia 130

5.8.2 Chrysomya 132

5.8.3 Lucilia 134

5.8.4 Phormia and Protophormia 137

5.8.5 Calliphora 138

5.8.6 Cordylobia 139

5.9 Sarcophagidae 140

5.9.1 Wohlfahrtia 140

Further reading and references 141

Chapter 6 Fleas (Siphonaptera) 143

6.1 Introduction 143

6.2 Morphology 144

6.3 Life history 146

6.4 Pathology 148

6.5 Classification 149

6.6 Recognition of fleas of veterinary importance 149

6.7 Pulicidae 149

6.7.1 Ctenocephalides 149

Guide to the flea species of veterinary importance 150

6.7.2 Spilopsyllus 154

6.7.3 Echidnophaga 155

6.7.4 Pulex 156

6.7.5 Xenopsylla 156

6.8 Ceratophyllidae 157

6.8.1 Ceratophyllus 157

6.8.2 Nosopsyllus 158

6.9 Flea species of minor veterinary interest 160

Further reading and references 160

Chapter 7 Lice (Phthiraptera) 162

7.1 Introduction 162

7.2 Morphology 162

7.3 Life history 164

7.4 Pathology 164

7.5 Classification 165

7.6 Recognition of lice of veterinary importance 166

Guide to the genera of lice of veterinary interest 166

7.7 Amblycera 168

7.7.1 Menoponidae 168

7.7.2 Boopidae 169

7.7.3 Gyropidae 169

7.8 Ischnocera 170

7.8.1 Philopteridae 170

7.8.2 Trichodectidae 172

7.9 Anoplura 174

7.9.1 Haematopinindae 174

7.9.2 Linognathidae 176

7.9.3 Polyplacidae 177

Further reading and references 178

Chapter 8 The Diagnosis and Control of Ectoparasite Infestation 179

8.1 Introduction 179

8.2 Diagnosis of ectoparasite infestation 179

8.2.1 Hair examination 180

8.2.2 Acetate strip examination 180

8.2.3 Superficial skin scraping (epidermal surface examination) 180

8.2.4 Deep skin scraping (deep epidermal examination) 181

8.2.5 Collection of free-living ectoparasites 181

8.2.6 Biopsy and histopathology 181

8.3 The chemical control of ectoparasites ± ectoparasiticides 181

8.3.1 Ectoparasiticides: early compounds 181

8.3.2 Ectoparasiticides: neurotoxins 182

8.3.3 Ectoparasiticides: insect growth regulators 184

8.3.4 Repellents 185

8.3.5 Desiccants 185

8.4 Mode of ectoparasiticide application 185

8.4.1 Topical preparations 185

8.4.2 Systemic preparations 185

8.4.3 Environmental preparations 186

8.5 Problems with chemical control 186

8.5.1 Poisoning and environmental contamination 186

8.5.2 Resistance 187

8.6 Non-chemical control of ectoparasites 187

8.6.1 Physical control 187

8.6.2 Barriers 188

8.6.3 Biological control 188

8.6.4 Vaccination 188

8.6.5 Trapping 189

8.6.6 Sterile insect technique 189

8.6.7 Modelling and forecasting 189

8.7 Cattle 190

8.7.1 Mites 190

8.7.2 Ticks 192

8.7.3 Flies 193

8.7.4 Myiasis 194

8.7.5 Fleas 195

8.7.6 Lice 195

8.8 Sheep 196

8.8.1 Mites 196

8.8.2 Ticks 199

8.8.3 Flies 199

8.8.4 Myiasis 200

8.8.5 Fleas 202

8.8.6 Lice 202

8.9 Horses 202

8.9.1 Mites 202

8.9.2 Ticks 204

8.9.3 Flies 205

8.9.4 Myiasis 207

8.9.5 Fleas 208

8.9.6 Lice 208

8.10 Pigs 208

8.10.1 Mites 208

8.10.2 Ticks 210

8.10.3 Flies 210

8.10.4 Myiasis 210

8.10.5 Fleas 211

8.10.6 Lice 211

8.11 Goats 211

8.11.1 Mites 211

8.11.2 Ticks 213

8.11.3 Flies 214

8.11.4 Myiasis 214

8.11.5 Fleas 215

8.11.6 Lice 215

8.12 Dogs 215

8.12.1 Mites 215

8.12.2 Ticks 219

8.12.3 Flies 219

8.12.4 Myiasis 220

8.12.5 Fleas 221

8.12.6 Lice 221

8.13 Cats 222

8.13.1 Mites 222

8.13.2 Ticks 225

8.13.3 Flies 225

8.13.4 Myiasis 226

8.13.5 Fleas 226

8.13.6 Lice 227

8.14 Rabbits 227

8.14.1 Mites 227

8.14.2 Flies 229

8.14.3 Myiasis 229

8.14.4 Fleas 230

8.14.5 Lice 230

8.15 Guinea-pigs 230

8.15.1 Mites 230

8.15.2 Flies 231

8.15.3 Myiasis 231

8.15.4 Fleas 231

8.15.5 Lice 232

8.16 Mice and rats 232

8.16.1 Mites 232

8.16.2 Flies 233

8.16.3 Myiasis 233

8.16.4 Fleas 233

8.16.5 Lice 233

8.17 Hamsters and gerbils 234

8.17.1 Mites 234

8.17.2 Flies 235

8.17.3 Myiasis 235

8.17.4 Fleas 235

8.18 Ferrets 235

8.18.1 Mites 235

8.18.2 Ticks 236

8.18.3 Myiasis 236

8.18.4 Fleas 236

8.19 Birds 236

8.19.1 Mites 236

8.19.2 Ticks 238

8.19.3 Flies 238

8.19.4 Myiasis 239

8.19.5 Fleas 239

8.19.6 Lice 240

8.20 Reptiles 240

8.20.1 Mites 240

8.20.2 Ticks 240

8.20.3 Flies 240

8.20.4 Treatment of reptile ectoparasites 241

Further reading and references 241

Glossary 243

Index 253

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Author Information

Richard Wall is professor of Zoology in the School of Biological Sciences of the University of Bristol. He specializes in the ecology, behavior, and evolution of arthropod parasites, pests and vectors.

David Shearer is a Veterinary Surgeon who works as a diagnostic pathologist and a referral dermatologist in Norfolk. He has a particular interest in ectoparasites, dermatohistopathology, skin immunology and skin microbiology.

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The Wiley Advantage

* easy to follow keys for identifying parasites
* links through to clinical information on treatment, etc
* highly illustrated, including a colour plate section
* the common ectoparasites of each host species is documented individually to allow easy reference for the clinician with a specific case
* a unique combination of parasitology, entomology and veterinary dermatology
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Reviews

"The second edition of this book is greatly improved with important changes to the appearance of the text and format.... The diagnostic sections on ectoparasites of small animals, such as hamsters, rabbits and guinea pigs, are particularly useful to the veterinary practitioner or student.... The information contained in this book is valuable to veterinarians and students of veterinary medicine, animal husbandry and zoology." (Veterinary Times)

"I believe the book is an excellent source of materials for the academic setting..." (Laboratory Animal Practitioner, 2002)

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