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Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology

Barry McCleary (Editor), Leon Prosky (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-632-05634-7
572 pages
February 2001, Wiley-Blackwell
Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology (0632056347) cover image

Description

Dietary fibre technology is a sophisticated component of the food industry. This highly practical book presents the state-of-the-art and explains how the background science translates into commercial reality. An international team of experts has been assembled to offer both a global perspective and the nuts and bolts information relevant to those working in the commercial world.

Coverage includes specific dietary fibre components (with overviews of chemistry, analysis and regulatory aspects of all key dietary fibres); measurement of dietary fibre and dietary fibre components (in-vitro and in-vivo); general aspects (eg chemical and physical nature; rheology and functionality; nutrition and health; and technological) and current hot topics.

Ideal as an up-to-date overview of the field for food technologists; nutritionists and quality assurance and production managers.

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Table of Contents

Preface xvi

List of Contributors xix

Part 1: Nutrition and Diet for a Healthy Lifestyle 1

1 Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe 3
Michael J. Gibney

1.1 The regulatory background in public health nutrition in the EU 3

1.2 Food intake patterns in the EU 3

1.3 Nutrition policy issues in the EU 5

1.4 Conclusions 11

References 11

2 Dietary Advice in North America: the Good, the Bad and the Unheeded 13
Julie Miller Jones

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Specifics of dietary advice in North America 13

References 20

Part 2: Chemistry, Structure and Rheology 23

3 Light Microscopic Investigations on Dietary Fibre 25
Karin Autio

3.1 Introduction 25

3.2 Staining of the main chemical components of cereal cell walls for light microscopy 26

3.3 The effect of purified cell wall degrading enzymes on cell walls 27

3.4 The effect of processing on the microstructure of cell walls 28

References 28

4 Assembly and Rheology of Non-starch Polysaccharides 30
Edwin R. Morris

4.1 Introduction 30

4.2 Composition and shape of polysaccharide chains 30

4.3 Solids, solutions and hydrated networks 33

4.4 Rheological measurements 34

4.5 Rheology of polysaccharide solutions, gels and dispersions 35

4.6 Overview 40

References 41

5 The Structures and Architectures of Plant Cell Walls Define Dietary Fibre Composition and the Textures of Foods 42
María Jesus Peña, Claudia E. Vergara, and Nicholas C. Carpita

5.1 Introduction 42

5.2 Cell-wall carbohydrates 42

5.3 Structural proteins 50

5.4 Aromatic and other substances 51

5.5 Dynamics in cell-wall architecture 51

5.6 Texture of fruits and vegetables 54

5.7 The special secondary walls of seeds 55

5.8 The biotechnology of dietary fi bres 56

References 57

Appendix 59

Part 3: Measurement of Dietary Fibre and Dietary Fibre Components 61

6 What is Dietary Fibre? A New Look at the Definition 63
Leon Prosky

6.1 Introduction 63

6.2 What is dietary fibre? A new look at the definition 63

6.3 The available methods 65

6.4 Dietary fi bre: the definition 68

6.5 The benefits of increased dietary fibre intake 70

6.6 Restrictions on beneficial claims for dietary fibre 71

References 72

7 Development of Dietary Fibre Methodology 77
Nils-Georg Asp

7.1 Introduction 77

7.2 Early developments 77

7.3 Definitions of dietary fibre 78

7.4 Classification of food carbohydrates 79

7.5 Enzymatic-gravimetric methods 80

7.6 Collaborative studies 83

7.7 Delimitation problems 85

7.8 Future perspectives 85

References 86

8 Measurement of Dietary Fibre Components: the Importance of Enzyme Purity, Activity and Specificity 89
Barry V. McCleary

8.1 Total dietary fibre: introduction 89

8.2 Specific dietary fibre components 95

8.3 Conclusions 104

References 104

9 In-vivo and In-vitro Methods for Resistant Starch Measurement 106
Martine Champ, Françoise Kozlowski and Gérard Lecannu

9.1 Introduction 106

9.2 Classification of resistant starches 107

9.3 In-vivo methods 107

9.4 In-vitro methods 110

9.5 Conclusions 117

References 117

Part 4: Regulatory Issues 121

10 Analytical Issues Regarding the Regulatory Aspects of Dietary Fibre Nutrition Labelling 123
Jonathan W. DeVries

10.1 Introduction 123

10.2 Why regulate? 123

10.3 Labelling of dietary fibre on food products 125

10.4 Analytical aspects of regulatory enforcement 133

Acknowledgements 137

References 137

11 Regulatory Issues Relating to Dietary Fibre in the European Context 139
Paul Coussement

Abstract 139

11.1 The EU nutrition labelling directive 139

11.2 National variations 140

11.3 Carbohydrates, polyols and dietary fi bre 140

11.4 The 1994 attempt to come to a definition 141

11.5 Caloric value 142

11.6 Official methods 142

11.7 Nutrient content claims on fibre 142

11.6 The future 144

References 145

Part 5: Health Benefits of Dietary Fibre 147

12 Dietary Fibre in Health and Disease 149
David Kritchevsky

12.1 Introduction 149

12.2 Fibre and the gastrointestinal tract 151

12.3 Obesity 151

12.4 Gallbladder disease 152

12.5 Diabetes 152

12.6 Lifestyle diseases 152

12.7 Summary 157

References 158

13 Dietary Fibre, Carbohydrate Metabolism and Chronic Disease 162
David J.A. Jenkins, Alexandra L. Jenkins, Cyril W.C. Kendall, Livia Augustine and Vladimir Vuksan

13.1 Introduction 162

13.2 Effect of viscous and non-viscous fibre on glucose, insulin and gut hormones 162

13.3 Fibre in whole food: food form and glycaemic index 163

13.4 Conclusion 165

References 166

14 Dietary Fibre and Gastrointestinal Function 168
Barbara O. Schneeman

14.1 Introduction 168

14.2 Characteristics of fibre that affect gastrointestinal function 169

14.3 Relationship between gastrointestinal function and physiological response 171

14.4 Conclusion and summary 173

References 174

15 Dietary Fibres and Dietary Lipids 177
Denis Lairon

15.1 Introduction 177

15.2 Fibres can reduce dietary lipid intake 177

15.3 Fibres alter fat digestion 177

15.4 Lipid and sterolileal excretion 180

15.5 Postprandial lipid metabolism and dietary fibres 181

15.6 A comprehensive view of the effects and mode of action of dietary fibres 181

References 183

16 Food Polysaccharides, Glucose Absorption and Insulin Sensitivity 186
John C. Mathers and Mark E. Daly

16.1 Syndrome X: central role of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia 186

16.2 Food polysaccharides and glucose absorption rates 187

16.3 Experimental studies of effects of food carbohydrates on insulin sensitivity in humans 191

16.4 Clinical implications 193

16.5 Role of food polysaccharides in healthy eating advice for the public 193

16.6 Conclusions 193

Acknowledgements 194

References 194

17 Fermentation of Oligosaccharides and Influences of Fermentation Products 197
Akiko Inagaki and Takashi Sakata

17.1 Bacterial breakdown of oligosaccharides in the large intestine 197

17.2 Absorption of bacterial metabolites from the large intestine 197

17.3 Influence of bacterial metabolites 197

17.4 Characteristics of SCFA effects 199

17.5 Regulating factors of bacterial metabolism in the large intestine 201

17.6 Perspectives and conclusions 203

References 203

18 Cholesterol-lowering Properties of Cereal Fibres and Fractions 206
Talwinder S. Kahlon

18.1 Introduction 206

18.2 Oat fibre and fraction 206

18.3 Rice fibre and fractions 211

18.4 Barley fibre and fractions 214

18.5 Conclusions and recommendations 216

References 217

19 Effects of Psyllium on Serum Cholesterol Levels 221
Victor L. Fulgoni, III

19.1 Introduction 221

19.2 Cholesterol-lowering effects 221

References 224

20 Non-digestible Carbohydrates and Gut Function: Implications for Carcinogenesis 226
Ian Rowland

20.1 Introduction 226

20.2 Direct effects of non-digestible carbohydrates on gut function 226

20.3 Non-digestible carbohydrates and gut microflora composition 227

20.4 Non-digestible carbohydrates and gut bacterial metabolism 227

20.5 Non-digestible carbohydrates and short-chain fatty acids 228

20.6 Influence of RS and NDO on gut functions related to cancer 228

20.7 Conclusions 230

Acknowledgements 230

References 230

21 Cereal Fibre and Heart Disease 232
Victor L. Fulgoni, III and Sharon Mueller

21.1 Introduction 232

21.2 Soluble fibre 232

21.3 Epidemiological evidence 233

21.4 Conclusions 234

References 235

Part 6: Technological Aspects 237

22 Developing Fibre-rich Foods in the Twenty-first Century 239
Anton J. Alldrick

22.1 Why develop fibre-rich foods? 239

22.2 Key considerations in developing DF-rich foods 240

22.3 Selling the product 245

22.4 Conclusions 246

References 246

23 Technological Aspects of Dietary Fibre 248
Friedrich Meuser

23.1 Introduction 248

23.2 Latest developments in the production and use of dietary fibre products 252

23.3 Dietary fibre products obtained from cereals, and enrichment of cereal products 255

23.4 Research approaches to developing dietary fibre products 259

23.5 Summary 265

References 266

24 Oatrim and NutrimX: Technological Development and Nutritional Properties 270
George E. Inglett and Craig J. Carriere

Disclaimer 270

24.1 Introduction 270

24.2 Oatrim 270

24.3 NutrimX 273

24.4 Summary 275

References 275

25 Effect of Processing on the Properties of Dietary Fibre 277
Kaisa Poutanen

25.1 Introduction 277

25.2 Processing 277

25.3 Effects of mechanical processing 278

25.4 Effects of endogenous and added enzymes 278

25.5 Effects of thermal processing 280

25.6 How to optimise the properties of dietary fi bre in food processing 280

References 281

26 Fibres and Fibre Blends for Individual Needs: a Physiological and Technological Approach 283
Hano-Ulrich Endress and Jürgen Fischer

26.1 Definition and origin of dietary fibres 283

26.2 Raw material for the isolation of dietary fibres 284

26.3 Physical-chemical aspects 286

26.4 Physiologically nutritional properties of dietary fibres 286

26.5 Additional properties of dietary fibre 289

26.6 Technological aspects of dietary fibre as functional ingredients in foods 289

26.7 Application fields of dietary fibres in food and food supplements 290

26.8 Dietary fibres for a healthy future 297

References 297

Part 7: Cereal Cell-wall Polysaccharides 299

27 Cereal Arabinoxylan: Occurrence, Structure and Properties 301
Roger Andersson and Per Åman

27.1 Occurrence 301

27.2 Structural elements 302

27.3 Structure heterogeneity 303

27.4 Arabinoxylan classification by extractability and structure 306

27.5 Properties of arabinoxylan solutions 308

References 311

28 Cereal β-Glucans: Structure, Properties and Health Claims 315
Peter J. Wood

28.1 Introduction 315

28.2 Physicochemical characteristics of cereal β-glucan 315

28.3 Clinical studies of oat -glucan 320

28.4 Conclusions 324

References 325

Part 8: Legume-seed Polysaccharides 329

29 Novel Galactomannans and Galacto-manno-oligosaccharides from Guar 331
Mariel Brooks, Ross Campbell and Barry V. McCleary

29.1 Introduction 331

29.2 Enzymatic hydrolysis of galactomannans 332

29.3 Properties of industrially produced galactose-depleted guar galactomannans (enzyme-modified guars) 337

29.4 Properties of oligosaccharides produced on hydrolysis of guar gum and enzyme-modified guar samples by β-mannanase 342

29.5 Conclusions 343

References 344

30 Physiological and Technological Functions of Partially Hydrolysed Guar Gum (Modified Galactomannans) 345
Lekh Raj Juneja, Senji Sakanaka and Djong-Chi Chu

30.1 Introduction 345

30.2 Physicochemical properties of PHGG 347

30.3 Nutritional and health benefits of PHGG 349

30.4 Safety aspects and applications 356

30.5 Conclusions 357

References 358

31 Dietary Fibres of Lupins and Other Grain Legumes 361
Hano Peter Pfoertner and Jürgen Fischer

31.1 Grain legumes in human nutrition 361

31.2 Dietary fibres of grain legumes 362

31.3 Properties of dietary fibres of grain legumes 364

31.4 Application of dietary fibres in food systems 364

References 366

Part 9: Pectins 367

32 Pectins, their Origin, Structure and Functions 369
Jean-François Thibault and Marie-Christine Ralet

32.1 Introduction 369

32.2 Industrial pectins 369

32.3 Pectin-rich cell walls as dietary fibre 372

32.4 Conclusions 376

References 376

33 Chemistry and Enzymology of Pectins 379
Fons Voragen, Gerrit Beldman and Henk Schols

33.1 Introduction 379

33.2 Chemical structure of pectins 380

33.3 Structural elements of pectin 382

33.4 Enzymes 386

33.5 Analysis of pectins 390

33.6 Concluding remarks 396

References 396

Part 10: Resistant Starch 399

34 Resistant Starch: Plant breeding, Applications Development and Commercial Use 401
Ian L. Brown, Ken J. McNaught, David Andrews and Tatsuya Morita

34.1 Introduction 401

34.2 Resistant starch research in Australia 402

34.3 Physiological effects of resistant starch 404

34.4 Use of resistant starch in food 405

34.5 Resistant starch and probiotics 408

34.6 Resistant starch and other applications 409

34.7 Commercialisation 409

34.8 Conclusions 410

References 410

35 In-vivo and In-vitro Digestion of Resistant Starch 413
Stephen G. Haralampu

35.1 Introduction 413

35.2 Resistant starch structures 413

35.3 RS and TDF assays 415

35.4 Physiological impact of RS 416

35.5 Fermentable dietary fibres 417

35.6 RS as dietary fibre 418

35.7 Characterisation of an RS3 food ingredient 418

35.8 Prebiotic potential of CrystaLean 418

35.9 Final remarks 421

Acknowledgements 422

References 422

36 Resistant Starch: Health Aspects and Food Uses 424
Gur Ranhotra

36.1 Introduction 424

36.2 Health aspects of resistant starch 424

36.3 Food uses of resistant starch 427

36.4 Conclusions 428

References 428

37 Structural Features of Resistant Starch 430
Yong-Cheng Shi and Roger Jeffcoat

37.1 Introduction 430

37.2 Materials and methods 431

37.3 Results and discussion 432

References 439

Part 11: Other Polysaccharides 441

38 Nutritional Benefits of Larch Arabinogalactan 443
Ramona Robinson, Jennifer Causey and Joanne L. Slavin

38.1 Introduction 443

38.2 Arabinogalactan structure 443

38.3 Safety of arabinogalactan 444

38.4 Physiological effects of AG 445

38.5 Gastrointestinal effects of AG 445

References 450

Part 12: Oligosaccharides 453

39 Non-digestible Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides: Their Physiological Effects and Health Implications 455
Diederick Meyer and Bryan Tungland

39.1 Introduction 455

39.2 Classes of dietary fibres 455

39.3 Physicochemical characteristics and physiological effects of various fibres 456

39.4 Physicochemical properties and effects on human physiology of selected NDP and NDO 459

39.5 Applications 467

References 468

40 Development and Beneficial Effects of Fructo-oligosaccharides (Neosugar) 471
Hidemasa Hidaka, Takashi Adachi and Masao Hirayama

40.1 Introduction 471

40.2 Research and development of resistant fructo-oligosaccharides 471

40.3 Useful characteristics obtained through intestinal fermentation 473

40.4 Uses as food ingredients and feedstuffs 476

References 478

41 Fructo-oligosaccharides and Other Fructans: Chemistry, Structure and Nutritional Effects 480
Francis R.J. Bornet

41.1 Chemistry, structure and origin 480

41.2 Methods to measure sc-FOS in food products 483

41.3 Nutritional aspects 483

41.4 Conclusions 490

References 490

42 Galacto-oligosaccharides: Properties and Health Aspects 494
H.C. (Margriet) Schoterman

42.1 Introduction 494

42.2 Properties of galacto-oligosaccacharides 494

42.3 Health aspects of galacto-oligosaccharides 496

42.4 Target groups and applications 499

References 500

43 Polydextrose: Analysis and Physiological Benefits 503
Stuart A.S. Craig

43.1 Introduction 503

43.2 Structure of PDX 505

43.3 Analysis of PDX 505

43.4 Physiological benefits of PDX 506

43.5 Conclusions 507

References 507

44 Fibersol-2: a Soluble, Non-digestible, Starch-derived Dietary Fibre 509
Kazuhiro Ohkuma and Shigeru Wakabayashi

44.1 Introduction 509

44.2 Production method and basic characteristics of Fibersol-2 509

44.3 Safety of Fibersol-2 511

44.4 Internal movement, energy value and physiological functions of Fibersol-2 511

44.5 Maintenance of digestive tract function by products of intestinal fermentation 516

44.6 Food applications of Fibersol-2 518

44.7 Measuring total dietary fibre in foods containing Fibersol-2 520

References 522

Index 525

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Author Information

Barry McCleary is co-founder and President of Megazyme International Ireland Limited. He has been actively involved in dietary fibre and enzyme research over the past three decades; many of the methods that he has developed have been adopted as International standards. Dr. McCleary is the incoming International Director of the American Association of Cereal Chemists.

Leon Prosky of Prosky Associates USA, Nutrition Consultants, was formerly Program Manager of Nutrition for the US Food & Drug Administration. He currently serves as General Referee for Dietary Fiber for the AOAC International and as Chairman of Technical Committee for Dietary Fibre & Starch for the AACC.

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