Wiley.com
Print this page Share

An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-632-05905-8
318 pages
December 2003, Wiley-Blackwell
An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry, 2nd Edition (0632059052) cover image

Description

This introductory text explains the fundamentals of the chemistry of the natural environment and the effects of mankind's activities on the earth's chemical systems.

  • Retains an emphasis on describing how natural geochemical processes operate over a variety of scales in time and space, and how the effects of human perturbation can be measured.
  • Topics range from familiar global issues such as atmospheric pollution and its effect on global warming and ozone destruction, to microbiological processes that cause pollution of drinking water deltas.
  • Contains sections and information boxes that explain the basic chemistry underpinning the subject covered.
  • Each chapter contains a list of further reading on the subject area. Updated case studies.

  • No prior chemistry knowledge required.
  • Suitable for introductory level courses.
See More

Table of Contents

List of boxes ix

Preface to the second edition xi

Preface to the first edition xii

Acknowledgements xiv

Symbols and abbreviations xviii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 What is environmental chemistry? 1

1.2 In the beginning 2

1.3 Origin and evolution of the Earth 2

1.3.1 Formation of the crust and atmosphere 4

1.3.2 The hydrosphere 5

1.3.3 The origin of life and evolution of the atmosphere 8

1.4 Human effects on biogeochemical cycles? 9

1.5 The structure of this book 11

1.6 Internet keywords 12

1.7 Further reading 13

1.8 Internet search keywords 13

2 Environmental chemist’s toolbox 14

2.1 About this chapter 14

2.2 Order in the elements? 14

2.3 Bonding 19

2.3.1 Covalent bonds 19

2.3.2 Ionic bonding, ions and ionic solids 20

2.4 Using chemical equations 21

2.5 Describing amounts of substances: the mole 22

2.6 Concentration and activity 22

2.7 Organic molecules – structure and chemistry 23

2.7.1 Functional groups 25

2.7.2 Representing organic matter in simple equations 26

2.8 Radioactivity of elements 27

2.9 Finding more chemical tools in this book 29

2.10 Further reading 30

2.11 Internet search keywords 30

3 The atmosphere 31

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Composition of the atmosphere 32

3.3 Steady state or equilibrium? 35

3.4 Natural sources 38

3.4.1 Geochemical sources 39

3.4.2 Biological sources 41

3.5 Reactivity of trace substances in the atmosphere 44

3.6 The urban atmosphere 45

3.6.1 London smog – primary pollution 46

3.6.2 Los Angeles smog – secondary pollution 48

3.6.3 21st-century particulate pollution 52

3.7 Air pollution and health 53

3.8 Effects of air pollution 55

3.9 Removal processes 56

3.10 Chemistry of the stratosphere 58

3.10.1 Stratospheric ozone formation and destruction 59

3.10.2 Ozone destruction by halogenated species 61

3.10.3 Saving the ozone layer 63

3.11 Further reading 64

3.12 Internet search keywords 65

4 The chemistry of continental solids 66

4.1 The terrestrial environment, crust and material cycling 66

4.2 The structure of silicate minerals 70

4.2.1 Coordination of ions and the radius ratio rule 70

4.2.2 The construction of silicate minerals 73

4.2.3 Structural organization in silicate minerals 73

4.3 Weathering processes 76

4.4 Mechanisms of chemical weathering 77

4.4.1 Dissolution 77

4.4.2 Oxidation 77

4.4.3 Acid hydrolysis 83

4.4.4 Weathering of complex silicate minerals 84

4.5 Clay minerals 87

4.5.1 One to one clay mineral structure 88

4.5.2 Two to one clay mineral structure 88

4.6 Formation of soils 93

4.6.1 Parent (bedrock) material (p) 94

4.6.2 Climate (cl) 94

4.6.3 Relief (r) 97

4.6.4 Vegetation (v) 99

4.6.5 Influence of organisms (o) 99

4.7 Wider controls on soil and clay mineral formation 104

4.8 Ion exchange and soil pH 111

4.9 Soil structure and classification 112

4.9.1 Soils with argillic horizons 113

4.9.2 Spodosols (podzols) 113

4.9.3 Soils with gley horizons 117

4.10 Contaminated land 119

4.10.1 Organic contaminants in soils 119

4.10.2 Degradation of organic contaminants in soils 125

4.10.3 Remediation of contaminated land 129

4.10.4 Phytoremediation 137

4.11 Further reading 139

4.12 Internet search keywords 140

5 The chemistry of continental waters 141

5.1 Introduction 141

5.2 Element chemistry 142

5.3 Water chemistry and weathering regimes 145

5.3.1 Alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and pH buffering 151

5.4 Aluminium solubility and acidity 155

5.4.1 Acidification from atmospheric inputs 156

5.4.2 Acid mine drainage 156

5.4.3 Recognizing acidification from sulphate data – ternary diagrams 159

5.5 Biological processes 161

5.5.1 Nutrients and eutrophication 163

5.6 Heavy metal contamination 170

5.6.1 Mercury contamination from gold mining 170

5.7 Contamination of groundwater 174

5.7.1 Anthropogenic contamination of groundwater 176

5.7.2 Natural arsenic contamination of groundwater 178

5.8 Further reading 180

5.9 Internet search keywords 180

6 The oceans 181

6.1 Introduction 181

6.2 Estuarine processes 182

6.2.1 Aggregation of colloidal material in estuaries 183

6.2.2 Mixing processes in estuaries 184

6.2.3 Halmyrolysis and ion exchange in estuaries 186

6.2.4 Microbiological activity in estuaries 187

6.3 Major ion chemistry of seawater 189

6.4 Chemical cycling of major ions 191

6.4.1 Sea-to-air fluxes 194

6.4.2 Evaporites 194

6.4.3 Cation exchange 195

6.4.4 Calcium carbonate formation 196

6.4.5 Opaline silica 205

6.4.6 Sulphides 206

6.4.7 Hydrothermal processes 208

6.4.8 The potassium problem: balancing the seawater major ion budget 214

6.5 Minor chemical components in seawater 216

6.5.1 Dissolved gases 216

6.5.2 Dissolved ions 216

6.5.3 Conservative behaviour 218

6.5.4 Nutrient-like behaviour 218

6.5.5 Scavenged behaviour 223

6.6 The role of iron as a nutrient in the oceans 227

6.7 Ocean circulation and its effects on trace element distribution 229

6.8 Anthropogenic effects on ocean chemistry 233

6.8.1 Human effects on regional seas 1: the Baltic 233

6.8.2 Human effects on regional seas 2: the Gulf of Mexico 235

6.8.3 Human effects on total ocean minor element budgets? 235

6.9 Further reading 237

6.10 Internet search keywords 238

7 Global change 239

7.1 Why study global-scale environmental chemistry? 239

7.2 The carbon cycle 240

7.2.1 The atmospheric record 240

7.2.2 Natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks 242

7.2.3 The global budget of natural and anthropogenic carbon dioxide 251

7.2.4 The effects of elevated carbon dioxide levels on global temperature and other properties 257

7.3 The sulphur cycle 262

7.3.1 The global sulphur cycle and anthropogenic effects 262

7.3.2 The sulphur cycle and atmospheric acidity 265

7.3.3 The sulphur cycle and climate 271

7.4 Persistent organic pollutants 274

7.4.1 Persistent organic pollutant mobility in the atmosphere 274

7.4.2 Global persistent organic pollutant equilibrium 278

7.5 Further reading 281

7.6 Internet search keywords 281

Index 283

Colour plates fall between pp. 138 and 139.

See More

Author Information

J.E. Andrews, P. Brimblecombe, T.D. Jickells, P.S. Liss and B. Reid are all based in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia. They have many years experience in teaching environmental chemistry to undergraduates and are internationally respected researchers in their fields.

See More

The Wiley Advantage


  • Retains an emphasis on describing how natural geochemical processes operate over a variety of scales in time and space, and how the effects of human perturbation can be measured.
  • Topics range from familiar global issues such as atmospheric pollution and its effect on global warming and ozone destruction, to microbiological processes that cause pollution of drinking water deltas.
  • Contains sections and information boxes that explain the basic chemistry underpinning the subject covered.
  • Each chapter contains a list of further reading on the subject area.
  • Updated case studies.
  • No prior chemistry knowledge required.
  • Suitable for introductory level courses.
See More

Reviews

"I can strongly recommend this book as a basic text for all those who wish to gain an initial understanding of the chemistry of the Earth and the way humans are interacting with their environment."
Peter O'Neill, University of Plymouth, Progress in Physical Geography, June 2005 <!--end-->

"Overall, this book is a valuable addition to reading lists for students taking undergraduate level courses primarily in Environmental Science, but also in Physical Geography, Earth Sciences and Environmental Chemistry. It is very readable and well written."
International Journal of Climatology, April 2006

"If I had to recommend one single textbook for courses in environmental science to students and all those interested from other fields, it would be this one. It is an excellent introductory reader and learning aid."
Environmental Biology

See More

Buy Both and Save 25%!

+

An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry, 2nd Edition (US $106.95)

-and- Introduction to Environmental Engineering (US $82.95)

Total List Price: US $189.90
Discounted Price: US $142.42 (Save: US $47.48)

Buy Both
Cannot be combined with any other offers. Learn more.
Back to Top