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An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-632-05905-8
318 pages
December 2003, Wiley-Blackwell
An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry, 2nd Edition (0632059052) cover image
This introductory text explains the fundamentals of the chemistry of the natural environment and the effects of mankind's activities on the earth's chemical systems.

  • Retains an emphasis on describing how natural geochemical processes operate over a variety of scales in time and space, and how the effects of human perturbation can be measured.
  • Topics range from familiar global issues such as atmospheric pollution and its effect on global warming and ozone destruction, to microbiological processes that cause pollution of drinking water deltas.
  • Contains sections and information boxes that explain the basic chemistry underpinning the subject covered.
  • Each chapter contains a list of further reading on the subject area. Updated case studies.

  • No prior chemistry knowledge required.
  • Suitable for introductory level courses.
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List of boxes.

Preface To The Second Edition.

Preface To The First Edition.

Acknowledgements.

Symbols And Abbreviations.

Part I: Introduction:.

1. What Is Environmental Chemistry?.

2. In The Beginning.

3. Origin And Evolution Of The Earth.

Formation Of The Crust And Atmosphere.

The Hydrosphere.

The Origin Of Life And Evolution Of The Atmosphere.

4. Human Effects On Biogeochemical Cycles?.

5. The Structure Of This Book.

6. WWW Keywords.

7. Further Reading.

8. WWW Search Keywords.

Part II: Environmental Chemist’s Toolbox:.

9. About This Chapter.

10. Order In The Elements?.

11. Bonding.

Covalent Bonds.

Ionic Bonding, Ions And Ionic Solids.

12. Using Chemical Equations.

13. Describing Amounts Of Substances: The Mole.

14. Concentration And Activity.

15. Organic Molecules ¯ Structure And Chemistry.

Functional Groups.

Representing Organic Matter In Simple Equations.

16. Radioactivity Of Elements.

17. Finding More Chemical Tools In This Book.

18. Further Reading.

19. WWW Search Keywords.

Part III: The Atmosphere:.

20. Introduction.

21. Composition Of The Atmosphere.

22. Steady State Or Equilibrium?.

23. Natural Sources.

Geochemical Sources.

Biological Sources.

24. Reactivity Of Trace Substances In The Atmosphere.

25. The Urban Atmosphere.

London Smog — Primary Pollution.

Los Angeles Smog — Secondary Pollution.

21st Century Particulate Pollution.

26. Air Pollution And Health.

27. Effects Of Air Pollution.

28. Removal Processes.

29. Chemistry Of The Stratosphere.

Stratospheric Ozone Formation And Destruction.

Ozone Destruction By Halogenated Species.

Saving The Ozone Layer.

30. Further Reading.

31. WWW Search Keywords.

Part IV: The Chemistry Of Continental Solids:.

32. The Terrestrial Environment, Crust And Material Cycling.

33. The Structure Of Silicate Minerals.

Coordination Of Ions And The Radius Ratio Rule.

The Construction Of Silicate Minerals.

Structural Organisation In Silicate Minerals.

34. Weathering Processes.

35. Mechanisms Of Chemical Weathering.

Dissolution.

Oxidation.

Acid Hydrolysis.

Weathering Of Complex Silicate Minerals.

36. Clay Minerals.

One To One Clay Mineral Structure.

Two To One Clay Mineral Structure.

37. Formation Of Soils.

Parent (Bedrock) Material (P).

Climate (Cl).

Relief (R).

Vegetation (V).

Influence Of Organisms (O).

38. Wider Controls On Soil And Clay Mineral Formation.

39. Ion Exchange And Soil Ph.

40. Soil Structure And Classification.

Soils With Argillic Horizons.

Spodosols (Podzols).

Soils With Gley Horizons.

41. Contaminated Land.

Organic Contaminants In Soils.

Degradation Of Organic Contaminants In Soils.

Remediation Of Contaminated Land.

Phytoremediation.

42. Further Reading.

43. WWW Search Keywords.

Part V: The Chemistry Of Continental Waters:.

44. Introduction.

45. Element Chemistry.

46. Water Chemistry And Weathering Regimes.

Alkalinity, Dissolved Inorganic Carbon And Ph Buffering.

47. Aluminium Solubility And Acidity.

Acidification From Atmospheric Inputs.

Acid Mine Drainage.

Recognising Acidification From Sulphate Data – Ternary Diagrams.

48. Biological Processes.

Nutrients And Eutrophication.

49. Heavy Metal Contamination.

Mercury Contamination From Gold Mining.

Contamination Of Groundwater.

Anthropogenic Contamination Of Groundwater.

Natural Arsenic Contamination Of Groundwater.

50. Further Reading.

51. WWW Search Keywords.

Part VI: The Oceans:.

52. Introduction.

53. Estuarine Processes.

Aggregation Of Colloidal Material In Estuaries.

Mixing Processes In Estuaries.

Halmyrolysis And Ion Exchange In Estuaries.

Microbiological Activity In Estuaries.

54. Major Ion Chemistry Of Seawater.

55. Chemical Cycling Of Major Ions.

Sea-To-Air Fluxes.

Evaporites.

Cation Exchange.

Calcium Carbonate Formation.

Opaline Silica.

Sulphides.

Hydrothermal Processes.

The Potassium Problem: Balancing The Seawater Major Ion Budget.

56. Minor Chemical Components In Seawater.

Dissolved Gases.

Dissolved Ions.

Conservative Behaviour.

Nutrient-Like Behaviour.

Scavenged Behaviour.

57. The Role Of Iron As A Nutrient In The Oceans.

58. Ocean Circulation And Its Effects On Trace Element Distribution.

59. Anthropogenic Effects On Ocean Chemistry.

Human Effects On Regional Seas 1: The Baltic.

Human Effects On Regional Seas 2: The Gulf Of Mexico.

Human Effects On Total Ocean Minor Element Budgets?.

60. Further Reading.

61. WWW Search Keywords.

Part VII: Global Change:.

62. Why Study Global-Scale Environmental Chemistry?.

63. The Carbon Cycle.

The Atmospheric Record.

Natural And Anthropogenic Sources And Sinks.

The Global Budget Of Natural And Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide.

The Effects Of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Levels On Global Temperature And Other Properties.

64. The Sulphur Cycle.

The Global Sulphur Cycle And Anthropogenic Effects.

The Sulphur Cycle And Atmospheric Acidity.

The Sulphur Cycle And Climate.

65. Persistent Organic Pollutants (Pops).

POP Mobility In The Atmosphere.

Global POP Equilibrium.

66. Further Reading.

67. WWW Search Keywords.

Index

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J.E. Andrews, P. Brimblecombe, T.D. Jickells, P.S. Liss and B. Reid are all based in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia. They have many years experience in teaching environmental chemistry to undergraduates and are internationally respected researchers in their fields.

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  • Retains an emphasis on describing how natural geochemical processes operate over a variety of scales in time and space, and how the effects of human perturbation can be measured.
  • Topics range from familiar global issues such as atmospheric pollution and its effect on global warming and ozone destruction, to microbiological processes that cause pollution of drinking water deltas.
  • Contains sections and information boxes that explain the basic chemistry underpinning the subject covered.
  • Each chapter contains a list of further reading on the subject area.
  • Updated case studies.
  • No prior chemistry knowledge required.
  • Suitable for introductory level courses.
See More
"I can strongly recommend this book as a basic text for all those who wish to gain an initial understanding of the chemistry of the Earth and the way humans are interacting with their environment."
Peter O'Neill, University of Plymouth, Progress in Physical Geography, June 2005 <!--end-->

"Overall, this book is a valuable addition to reading lists for students taking undergraduate level courses primarily in Environmental Science, but also in Physical Geography, Earth Sciences and Environmental Chemistry. It is very readable and well written."
International Journal of Climatology, April 2006

"If I had to recommend one single textbook for courses in environmental science to students and all those interested from other fields, it would be this one. It is an excellent introductory reader and learning aid."
Environmental Biology

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