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Vitamins: Their Role in the Human Body

ISBN: 978-0-632-06478-6
448 pages
November 2004, Wiley-Blackwell
Vitamins: Their Role in the Human Body (0632064781) cover image

Description

This single-source reference draws together the current knowledge of the vitamins’ biological properties in the context of human nutrition. Vitamins are co-enzymes, antioxidants or precursors of hormones and are therefore involved in a great many biochemical and physiological processes. They play a vital role in the maintenance of health, and there is evidence that dietary sources of vitamins have beneficial effects in the prevention of heart-related diseases, bone diseases and possibly cancer.

Following introductory chapters on historical and nutritional aspects of vitamins, the next four chapters cover relevant and detailed aspects of physiology and functional anatomy, biochemistry, immunology and the regulation of protein synthesis by nuclear hormone receptors. These background chapters, supported by a glossary of terms, provide the scientific principles upon which vitamin functions are based. The following thirteen chapters deal with each vitamin in turn. Subject areas include chemical structure, intestinal absorption, transport, metabolism, biochemical and physiological actions, immunoregulatory properties, deficiency-related diseases and potential toxicity. An extensive bibliography refers the reader to the original research literature.

Vitamins is aimed at nutritionists, biochemists, physiologists and physicians whether they be researchers, teachers or students. Food scientists, food technologists and many others working in the health professions will also find much of use and interest in the book. The inclusion of the theoretical principles in the background chapters makes the book an ideal starting point for those working outside the area who need a solid overview of the subject.
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Table of Contents

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

1 Historical Events Leading to the Establishment of Vitamins 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Early studies of nutritionally related diseases 2

1.3 Experiments on formulated diets 6

1.4 Naming of the vitamins 7

Further reading 7

References 7

2 Nutritional Aspects of Vitamins 8

2.1 Definition and classification of vitamins 8

2.2 Nutritional vitamin deficiency 8

2.3 Stability and bioavailability of vitamins 10

2.4 Vitamin requirements 11

Further reading 11

References 11

3 Background Physiology and Functional Anatomy 12

3.1 Movement of solutes across cell membranes and epithelia 13

3.2 The blood–brain, blood–cerebrospinal fl uid and placental barriers 26

3.3 Functional anatomy of the small and large intestine, liver and kidney 29

3.4 Digestion and absorption 36

3.5 Glucose transport 39

3.6 Digestion, absorption and transport of dietary fat 44

3.7 Neural and endocrine communication systems 47

3.8 Structure of bone and its growth and development 55

3.9 Cell proliferation 62

Further reading 64

References 64

4 Background Biochemistry 67

4.1 Major degradation pathways in which B-group vitamins are involved as coenzymes 68

4.2 Amino acid utilization 71

4.3 Defences against free radicals and other reactive species 75

4.4 Haemostasis 76

4.5 Atherosclerosis 80

Further reading 90

References 90

5 Background Immunology 94

5.1 General features of the immune system 94

5.2 Innate immunity 95

5.3 Inflammation 101

5.4 Acquired immunity 103

5.5 Cytokines 106

5.6 Hypersensitivity 107

5.7 Immune suppression 108

5.8 Neuroendocrine modulation of immune responses 108

Further reading 108

References 108

6 The Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis and its Regulation by Nuclear Hormone Receptors 110

6.1 Functional structure of DNA 110

6.2 Role of RNA in protein synthesis 113

6.3 Gene expression 116

6.4 Mutation and polymorphism 116

6.5 Basal transcription 118

6.6 Regulated transcription 120

6.7 Jun, Fos and the AP-1 complex 125

6.8 Nuclear hormone receptors as regulators of protein synthesis 126

Further reading 131

References 131

7 Vitamin A: Retinoids and Carotenoids 133

7.1 Historical overview 134

7.2 Chemistry and biological functions 134

7.3 Dietary sources 136

7.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 136

7.5 Nutritional factors that influence vitamin A status 150

7.6 The role of vitamin A in vision 151

7.7 Retinoids as regulators of gene expression 155

7.8 Effects of vitamin A on the immune system 171

7.9 Role of vitamin A in bone metabolism and embryonic development 174

7.10 Vitamin A and cancer 176

7.11 Vitamin A deficiency and toxicity 178

Further reading 180

References 180

8 Vitamin D 188

8.1 Historical overview 189

8.2 Chemistry and biological functions 190

8.3 Dietary sources 191

8.4 Cutaneous synthesis, intestinal absorption, transport and metabolism 191

8.5 Molecular action of the vitamin D hormones 198

8.6 Calcium and phosphate homeostasis 208

8.7 Immunoregulatory properties 218

8.8 Effects of vitamin D on insulin secretion 221

8.9 Vitamin D-related diseases 221

8.10 Therapeutic applications of vitamin D analogues 222

8.11 Toxicity 223

8.12 Dietary requirement 224

Further reading 224

References 224

9 Vitamin E 234

9.1 Historical overview 235

9.2 Chemistry, biopotency and units of activity 235

9.3 Dietary sources 236

9.4 Absorption, transport and delivery to tissues 236

9.5 Antioxidant role 239

9.6 Effect upon the ageing immune responses 240

9.7 Vitamin E and atherosclerosis 241

9.8 Vitamin E deficiency 247

9.9 Dietary intake 251

Further reading 252

References 252

10 Vitamin K 256

10.1 Historical overview 256

10.2 Chemistry 257

10.3 Dietary sources 258

10.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 258

10.5 Biochemical and physiological functions 263

10.6 Vitamin K deficiency 268

Further reading 269

References 269

11 Thiamin (Vitamin B1) 273

11.1 Historical overview 274

11.2 Chemistry and biological activity 274

11.3 Dietary sources and bioavailability 274

11.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 275

11.5 Biochemical functions 277

11.6 Neurophysiological functions 280

11.7 Vitamin B1 deficiency 282

11.8 Nutritional aspects 286

Further reading 287

References 287

12 Flavins: Riboflavin, FMN and FAD (Vitamin B2) 289

12.1 Historical overview 289

12.2 Chemistry 290

12.3 Dietary sources and bioavailability 291

12.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 291

12.5 Biochemical functions 297

12.6 Vitamin B2 deficiency 298

12.7 Nutritional aspects 298

Further reading 299

References 299

13 Niacin: Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinamide 301

13.1 Historical overview 301

13.2 Chemistry 301

13.3 Dietary sources and bioavailability 302

13.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 303

13.5 Biochemical functions 306

13.6 Niacin deficiency 308

13.7 Nutritional aspects 308

Further reading 309

References 309

14 Vitamin B6 310

14.1 Historical overview 310

14.2 Chemistry and biological activity 311

14.3 Dietary sources and bioavailability 311

14.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 312

14.5 Biochemical functions 315

14.6 Regulation of steroid hormone action 319

14.7 Immune function 320

14.8 Vitamin B6 deficiency 322

14.9 Nutritional aspects 322

Further reading 323

References 323

15 Pantothenic Acid and Coenzyme A 326

15.1 Historical overview 326

15.2 Chemistry 327

15.3 Dietary sources and bioavailability 327

15.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 328

15.5 Biochemical functions of coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein in cellular metabolism 330

15.6 Physiological roles of coenzyme A in the modification of proteins 332

15.7 Deficiency in animals and humans 334

15.8 Dietary intake 334

Further reading 335

References 335

16 Biotin 337

16.1 Historical overview 337

16.2 Chemistry 338

16.3 Dietary sources and bioavailability 338

16.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 339

16.5 Biochemical and physiological functions 341

16.6 Biotin deficiency 343

Further reading 345

References 345

17 Folate 347

17.1 Historical overview 348

17.2 Chemistry 348

17.3 Dietary sources and bioavailability 348

17.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 351

17.5 Biochemical functions 359

17.6 Homocysteine-related occlusive arterial and thrombotic diseases 363

17.7 Folate and neural tube defects 371

17.8 Folate deficiency 374

17.9 Dietary intake 376

Further reading 376

References 377

18 Vitamin B12 383

18.1 Historical overview 383

18.2 Chemistry 384

18.3 Dietary sources and bioavailability 384

18.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 385

18.5 Biochemical functions 387

18.6 Vitamin B12 deficiency 388

18.7 Dietary intake 390

Further reading 391

References 391

19 Vitamin C 393

19.1 Historical overview 394

19.2 Chemistry 394

19.3 Dietary sources and bioavailability 395

19.4 Absorption, transport and metabolism 395

19.5 Effect of ascorbic acid upon absorption of inorganic iron 400

19.6 Inhibition of N-nitroso compound formation 401

19.7 Biochemical and neurochemical functions 403

19.8 Role of ascorbic acid in mesenchymal differentiation 406

19.9 Antioxidant role 407

19.10 Immune function 409

19.11 Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease 412

19.12 Vitamin C deficiency 414

19.13 Dietary intake 415

Further reading 415

References 415

Abbreviations 421

Glossary 423

Index 429

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The Wiley Advantage

* comprehensive and up-to-date
* contains a vast wealth of information appearing together for the first time
* author is well-known and respected for his previous books on vitamins
* book is of interest to wide range of scientists working with vitamins
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