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Ethernet in the First Mile: Access for Everyone

ISBN: 978-0-7381-4838-0
480 pages
January 2010
Ethernet in the First Mile: Access for Everyone (0738148385) cover image


IEEE Std 802.3ah-2004 is an outstanding resource for those building products compatible with the Ethernet in the First Mile standard. This book brings the standard to life by explaining the basic principles behind the standard, presenting the tradeoffs that led to the standardization of the specific technologies, and providing a guide to help you navigate through the formal prose. Presented in a concise and easy to read format, Ethernet in the First Mile: Access for Everyone, is a must have for end users, deployers, service providers, venture capitalists, IT professionals, and students. In order to give readers quick access to the information they need, each chapter begins with an overview, defines what the reader should expect to learn in that section, and ends with a summary of concepts, which gives readers quick access to the information they seek. Authors Wael Diab and Howard Frazier provide the story of Ethernet in the First Mile: why it happened, how it happened, what exactly happened, and what it will do for you. As the leaders of the standards project, these authors saw it all, from beginning to end. Facts are separated from fiction, giving you the straight scoop, and the inside story. This work is meant to serve as a companion to the IEEE standard; a Rosetta stone to help you decipher the hieroglyphics. Tutorial material not allowed in formal standards documents is provided, giving insights and illuminating the murky corners of the standard. The end result is a must-have resource for anyone interested in Ethernet in the First Mile technology.
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Table of Contents

Introduction xxii

Chapter 1 Background and History 1

1. Introduction 2

1.1 Overview of the chapter 2

1.2 What to expect and who would benefit from reading this chapter 2

1.3 What is the IEEE and where did that 802 number come from? 2

1.4 A few words on the structure of IEEE 802 and its sub-groups 3

1.5 What is an IEEE 802 standard? 5

1.6 The IEEE 802.3 family - Ethernet 11

1.7 History of IEEE Std 802.3ah 11

1.8 EFM as a new addition to the IEEE 802.3 family 12

1.9 Summary of Concepts Covered in this Chapter 13

1.10 Additional References 13

Chapter 2 The Evolution of Broadband Ethernet 15

2. Introduction 16

2.1 Overview of the chapter 16

2.2 What to expect, and who would benefit from reading this chapter 16

2.3 Broadband access - Data to the people! 17

2.4 Ethernet to the rescue 26

2.5 Defining the scope of work 28

2.6 Summary and concepts covered in this chapter 36

2.7 Additional References 36

Chapter 3 Overview of the EFM Standard 37

3. Introduction 38

3.1 Overview of the chapter 38

3.2 What to expect and the benefit of reading this chapter 38

3.3 Overview of the solutions introduced by EFM 38

3.4 The scope of ethernet: The 7-layer OSI model 39

3.5 The Ethernet Naming Convention and the Physical Layer Signaling System 43

3.6 EFM's nine technologies and fourteen port types 45

3.7 A closer look at the architectural positioning of EFM 53

3.8 The scope of EFM 60

3.9 What to read and where to find it: Structure of the EFM document 61

3.10 Summary of concepts covered in this chapter 61

Chapter 4 Overview of the EFM Optical Specifications 63

4. Introduction 64

4.1 Overview of the chapter 65

4.2 What to expect and who would benefit from reading this chapter 65

4.3 What is an optical PMD, and why should I care? 65

4.4. A Cost enabling philosophy 66

4.5 The style and structure of the optical clauses 68

4.6 Common framework 69

4.7 An introduction to the optical tests 92

4.8 Killer packets: A life-saving contribution to the system folks 93

4.9 Jitter: The important 'normative' information 97

4.10 Summary and concepts covered in this chapter 98

4.11 Additional references 98

Chapter 5 EFM's point-to-point optical solutions 99

5. Introduction 100

5.1 Overview of the chapter 100

5.2 What to expect and who would benefit from reading this chapter 101

5.3 A few more words on the transceiver and the underlying laser technologies 101

5.4 Architectural decisions 104

5.5 100 Mbps dual fiber P2P 114

5.6 100 Mbps single fiber P2P 120

5.7 1000 Mbps dual fiber P2P 126

5.8 1000 Mbps single fiber P2P 139

5.9 Extended temperature operation 146

5.10 Platform design: Leveraging the optical commonalities for cost-effective implementations 149

5.11 Summary of concepts covered in this chapter 150

5.12 Additional references 150

Chapter 6 Looking above the PMDs for EFM's Point-to-Point Optical Solutions 151

6. Introduction 152

6.1 Overview of the chapter 152

6.2 What to expect and who would benefit from reading this chapter 152

6.3 The purpose of Clause 66 152

6.4 Review of the layer model for EFM optical point-to-point links 153

6.5 Layers common to 100 Mbps and 1000 Mbps 154

6.6 100BASE-X 156

6.7 1000BASE-X 162

6.8 Summary of concepts covered in this chapter 175

6.9 Additional References 175

Chapter 7 An Introduction to EPONs and a Discussion of the P2MP PMDs 177

7. Introduction 178

7.1 Overview of the chapter 178

7.2 What to expect and who would benefit from reading this chapter 179

7.3 Background and Basic PON and EPON Frameworks 179

7.4 An architectural introduction 185

7.5 Architectural decisions 186

7.6 The guts of an EPON transceiver: Similarities between 1000BASE-BX and 1000BASE-PX transceivers 189

7.7 New PMD parameters 190

7.8 1000BASE-PX10: Single fiber 10 km P2MP 192

7.9 1000BASE-PX20: Single fiber 20 km P2MP 208

7.10 Interoperability between the various EPON PMDs 220

7.11 EPON topologies 221

7.12 Summary of concepts covered in this chapter 223

Chapter 8 The EPON PHY 225

8. Introduction 226

8.1 Overview of the chapter 227

8.2 What to expect and who would benefit from reading this chapter 227

8.3 65: The "reader's digest" 227

8.4 The Gigabit Ethernet layers 228

8.5 Point-to-point emulation 232

8.6 Burst mode operation 240

8.7 Forward error correction (FEC) for 1000BASE-PX 260

8.8 Delay through the PHY 268

8.9 Summary of concepts covered in this chapter 269

8.10 Additional references 269

Chapter 9 EPON Multipoint Control Protocol 271

9. Introduction 272

9.1 Overview of the chapter 272

9.2 Who will benefit from reading this chapter 272

9.3 Overview of MPCP 272

9.4 MPCPDUs 284

9.5 Discovery and registration process 291

9.6 GATE and REPORT messages 292

9.7 Single copy broadcasting 293

9.8 Summary of concepts covered in this chapter 293

9.9 Additional References 293

Chapter 10 Copper Physical Layers 295

10. Introduction 296

10.1 Overview of the chapter 296

10.2 Who will benefit from reading this chapter 296

10.3 The premise of Ethernet over telephone wire 296

10.4 Relationship to ATIS, ETSI, and ITU-T 298

10.5 The need for two modulation techniques 301

10.6 Layering and sublayer interfaces 305

10.7 Physical coding sublayer (PCS) functions 310

10.8 Transmission convergence (TC) sublayer functions 314

10.9 Management 321

10.10 Summary of the concepts presented in this chapter 324

10.11 For further reference 324

Chapter 11 Copper Physical Layer Signalling 325

11. Introduction 326

11.1 Overview of the chapter 326

11.2 Who will benefit from reading this chapter 326

11.3 10PASS-TS (Ethernet over VDSL) 326

11.4 2BASE-TL (Ethernet over SHDSL) 339

11.5 Summary of concepts covered in this chapter 344

11.6 Additional references 345

Chapter 12 Simplified Full-Duplex Media Access Control 347

12. Introduction 348

12.1 Overview of the chapter 348

12.2 Who will benefit from reading this chapter 348

12.3 The evolution of the Ethernet MAC 348

12.4 Full-duplex flow control using 'Pause' 352

12.5 IPG stretching 354

12.6 Full-duplex flow control using carrier deferral 355

12.7 The simplified full-duplex MAC 356

12.8 Applicability for EFM 360

12.9 Applicability beyond EFM 360

12.10 Summary of the concepts presented in this chapter 361

12.11 For further reference 361

Chapter 13 Management 363

13. Introduction 364

13.1 Overview of the chapter 364

13.2 What to expect and who would benefit from reading this chapter 364

13.3 Enterprise network management 364

13.4 Broadband subscriber access network management 368

13.5 Review of the OAM objective 369

13.6 Overview of the protocol 374

13.7 OAM protocol data units 377

13.8 Modes 386

13.9 Discovery 387

13.10 Multiplexer and parser 388

13.11 Additions to Clause 30 390

13.12 Additions to Clause 45 394

13.13 Summary of concepts covered in this chapter 394

13.14 Additional references 395

Chapter 14 Summary and Conclusions 397

14. Introduction 398

14.1 Overview of the chapter 398

14.2 What to expect, and who would benefit from reading this chapter 398

14.3 Summary 398

14.4 Conclusions 414

Annex A The Different PONs 417

A. Introduction 418

A.l Overview of the Annex 418

A.2 What to expect and who would benefit from reading this Annex 418

A.3 What are the other PONs? 418

A.4 Physical layer and protocol differences 420

A.4.1 APON/BPON 421

A.4.2GPON 425

A.5 Summary of concepts covered in this Annex 432

A.6 Additional references 432

Index 433

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Author Information

Wael William Diab has over ten years experience in defining, architecting, and building next generation networking products. He has been a key member of the industry, as well as in the standards community setting strategy for emerging networking technologies. He is currently with Broadcom as Director of Marketing looking at next generation products for the Networking Infrastructure Group. Prior to Broadcom, he worked at Cisco Systems in various capacities ranging in scope from technical and architectural leadership to business leadership, focused on next generation networking products and technologies. Mr. Diab has been responsible for representing Cisco and Broadcom at industry forums like the IEEE and others. He has given a number of industry talks and keynote addresses on Ethernet in the First Mile (IEEE 802.3ah), access technologies, and emerging Ethernet technologies. He is an active member and contributor within the IEEE standards community. During the Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) project, he was elected Chief Optics Editor in 2001 and was later elected and promoted to the position of Chief Editor for the entire IEEE 802.3ah standard where he oversaw all of EFM's technical teams including optics, copper (DSL), OAM, and P2MP (EPON). Mr. Diab has been a key contributor on previous Ethernet projects such as IEEE 802.3af (Power over Ethernet) and 802.3ae (10 Gigabit Ethernet). He was also a key member of the team at Cisco that delivered the first Gigabit Ethernet and Power over Ethernet products to the industry. Today, Mr. Diab serves as Secretary of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) and is an Officer in Ethernet's Executive Committee overseeing on organization of 300+ members as well as all current projects and Ethernet standards. He has served on the Board of Directors for the Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance, as well as vice-chairman for the Marketing (MSAD) group of the Fiber to the Home (FTTH) Council and several program committees focused on networking and first mile activities. Mr. Diab has also been a contributing author on Ethernet. He is a strong advocate of academic research and innovation focused on the networking space. At Cisco he served as a technology research Director in addition to his regular duties and was a member of both Cisco's University Research Board as well as Cisco's Patent Committee. In the area of academic research, he has championed several projects including an optical PON project with UNH and a high speed copper PHY project with PDG (now The Technology Collaborative, TTC). Mr. Diab holds BS and MS degrees in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University, a BA degree in Economics from Stanford, and an MBA with honors from the Wharton School of Business. He has developed over twelve patents in the networking space.

Howard M. Frazier is an independent consultant on matters relating to networking standards and technology. He was the founder and Chief Technical Officer of Dominet Systems, Inc., a Silicon Valley startup building Ethernet in the First Mile systems for broadband subscriber access networks. Previously, Mr. Frazier was a Distinguished Engineer at Cisco Systems. He is one of the co-inventors of Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet, as well as the Chairman of the IEEE 802.3 Task Forces that wrote the standards for Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. He also served a term as the Recording Secretary of the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee. Among other accomplishments in high-speed networking, he developed the world's first 10/100BASE-T network interface card in 1993 while working at Sun Microsystems. Mr. Frazier served as the Chairman of the IEEE 802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile Task Force, is a former Chairman of the IEEE Standards Association's Review Committee (RevCom), and was the Vice Chairman of the IEEE-SA Standards Board. He is a graduate of Carnegie-Mellon University.

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