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WirelessMAN: Inside the IEEE 802.16 Standard for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks

ISBN: 978-0-7381-4842-7
350 pages
April 2006
WirelessMAN: Inside the IEEE 802.16 Standard for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (0738148423) cover image


WirelessMAN: Inside the IEEE 802.16 Standard for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks is the perfect resource for understanding and navigating through the IEEE 802.16 standard, which serves as the basis of all WiMAX broadband wireless access systems. Written by the 802.16 Working Group's Chair, Dr. Roger B. Marks, and Vice Chair, Kenneth L. Stanwood, along with Working Group participants Carl Eklund, Subbu Ponnuswamy, and Dr. Nico J.M. van Waes, the book provides a thorough understanding of the standard from an insider’s perspective not found elsewhere. Inside:
  • Find detailed descriptions of the medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) operation up through IEEE 802.16-2004, with an introduction to the technologies introduced in IEEE 802.16e.
  • See why certain design choices were made and how recent technological developments, real-world experience, and lessons learned from previous projects were used to make critical tradeoffs.
  • Get details on OFDM, OFDMA, multiple antenna systems, security,and mesh technologies.
  • See performance simulations and learn about current conformance and interoperability activities.
  • Read a summary of ongoing projects, related standards, and future extensions.

WirelessMAN is a must-read for anyone wishing to understand the IEEE 802.16 standard and its operation. This book will immediately benefit designers, engineers, students, and deployment professionals who need to rapidly understand the fundamentals of the standard. The book is a self-contained companion to the standard, and no specific knowledge of any other wireless protocols is assumed. It can be used for self-study, as a reference, or as a designer's handbook.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures xxvii

List of Tables xxxi

Acronyms and Abbreviations xxxiii

Chapter 1 Broadband wireless access (BWA):

Applicable market segments and requirements 1

Commercial fixed broadband wireless: fiber extention 6

Residential fixed broadband wireless: digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable modem alternative 8

Quality of service (QoS) 11

Throughout requirements 11

Chapter 2 IEEE 802.16 standards:

The working group and documents 13

Background 13

IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) 13

IEEE 802® LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMSC) 15

Standards development in IEEE 802 16

IEEE 802.16 Working Group: Overview 19

IEEE 802.16 Working Group: History 19

Technical progress in IEEE 802.16 Working Group 21

Coexistence: IEEE Std 802.16.2™ 27

Chapter 3 Basic concepts and definitions:

Wireless protocol and communication concepts 29

Frequency bands 30

Types of wireless networks 33

Wireless network topologies 34

RF propagation 36

Antennas 40

Physical layer (PHY) 48

Duplexing, multiplexing, and multiple access 49

Data units 56

Quality of service (QoS) 57

Medium access control layer (MAC) 62

Chapter 4 IEEE 802-16 architecture:

Overview and key features 67

Reference model 68

Base station (BS) and subscriber station (SS) 71

Convergence sublayer (CS) architecture 73

Framing and duplexing 74

Subscriber-level adaptive PHY 84

Framed PHY 85

MAC efficiency 85

Mesh 87

Directed mesh 88

Quality of service (QoS) 88

Security sublayer 89

Automatic repeat request (ARQ) 90

Physical layer (PHY) 93

Mandatory and optional components 94

Bit ordering 98

Chapter 5 Convergence sublayers (CSs):

Support for multiple protocol transport 99


Packet convergence sublayer (PCS) 101

Chapter 6 MAC basics:

Concepts, connections, formats, and headers 107

Connections and addressing 107

MAC headers and subheaders 113

MAC header demulitplexing 118

MAC subheaders 119

ARQ feedback 125

Data and management PDU construction 125

Simple MPDU 125

Subheader ordering 126

ARQ blocks 127

Fragmentation 129

Packing 131

Concatenation 135

MPDU encryption and CRC 135

MAC management 136

ARQ 137

Hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) 143

Chapter 7 MAC operation:

Radio control, QoS, and ARQ 149

Network entry and initialization 149

PHY maintenance 155

QoS and service flows 171

Interactions between QoS, CAC, and adaptive PHY 181

Mulitcast connection 189

BW request/grant 190

Scheduling 193

Unicast polling 197

Broadcast polling 199

Mulitcast polling groups 200

Clock comparison 201

ARQ operation 203

ARQ protocol messages 206

BSN comparison 207

ARQ transmitter 207

ARQ receiver 210

ARQ state machine reset and resynchronization 213

Interaction with scheduler 215

HARQ operation 216

Chapter 8 Security:

PKM protocol and cryptographic methods 219

Security associations (SAs) and cryptographic suites 219

Key management 224

Chapter 9 Mesh:

MAC and PHY extentions for mesh 229

Introduction 229

Logical mesh 232

Directed mesh and point-to-point (PtP) 244

Chapter 10 PHY: WirelessMAN-SC:

Single-carrier PHY for 10-66 GHz 247

Chapter 11 PHY: WirelessMAN-OFDM:

Multicarrier PHY for frequencies below 11 GHz 261

Waveform construction 261

Frame structure 272

Channel encoding 277

Control mechanisms 282

Chapter 12 PHY: WirelessMAN-OFDMA:

Multicarrier PHY for frequencies below 11 GHz 287

Introduction 288

Frame structure 300

Channel encoding 302

Control mechanisms 306

Chapter 13 Multiple antenna systems:

Support for advanced antennas 311

Adaptive antenna systems (AAS) 311

Open-loop transmit diversity 321

Closed-loop transmit diversity 324

Chapter 14 Performance analysis:

MAC and PHY performance and throughout 327

Introduction 327

WirelessMAN-OFDM, fixed operation 327

Capacity analysis 327

MAC performance 329

WirelessMAN-OFDM, mobile operation 338

WirelessMAN-OFDMA, mobile operation 343

Chapter 15 Conformance and interoperability:

Conformance standards and testing 357

Chapter 16 Related standards:

Other wireless standards with similar applications 365

IEEE Std 802.11 365

IEEE 802.20 working Group 373

IEEE 802.22 Working Group 374


Other regional standards activities 378

Appendix A IEEE 802.16 headers, subheaders, and management messages 383

Bibliography 387

Index 393

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Author Information

Carl Eklund received his M.S. in engineering physics from Helsinki University of Technology in 1996. He joined the Communication Systems Laboratory of Nokia Research Center in 1998, working mainly on radio protocol design and standardization. In the IEEE 802.16 effort, he chaired the MAC Task Group that developed the IEEE 802.16 medium access control layer (MAC) protocol for IEEE Std 802.16-2001. He also served as the technical editor for the protocol implementation conformance statement (PICS) and test suite structure and test purposes (TSS&TP) specifications for IEEE Std 802.16-2001. Eklund currently is a principal engineer in the Radio Communications Laboratory of Nokia Research Center, Helsinki, Finland. Since October 2005, he has been heading the research and standardization program for WiMAX and IEEE 802.16 in Nokia.

Roger B. Marks initiated, in 1998, the effort leading to the formation of the IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access, chairing it since inception and serving as Technical Editor of the group's first two standards. He also serves actively on the IEEE 802 Executive Committee and holds the position of China Liaison Official. Marks is a physicist with the (U.S.) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colorado, USA. He received his A.B. in physics in 1980 from Princeton University and his Ph.D. in applied physics in 1988 from Yale University. A Fellow of the IEEE and an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer, Marks developed the IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference and chaired it from 1996 through 1999. He is the author of over 90 publications and the recipient of numerous awards, including the Individual Governmental Vision Award from the Wireless Communications Association and the IEEE Technical Field Award in measurement technology. He has received the U.S. Department of Commerce Gold, Silver (three times), and Bronze Medals.

Subbu Ponnuswamy was one of the early participants in the IEEE 802.16 Working Group and a contributor to the IEEE 802.16 and IEEE 802.11 standards. He is also a coauthor of a WiMAX course for development engineers, offered by Doceotech. He has many years of industry experience in the design and development of wireless local area network (LAN) and metropolitan area network (MAN) products, including those based on the IEEE 802.16 and IEEE 802.11 standards. As the director of engineering at Kiwi Networks, Ponnuswamy led the design and development of interference-resilient IEEE 802.16 and IEEE 802.11 systems in the license-exempt bands for indoor and outdoor applications. He also led IEEE 802.11 MAC application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and software development at Vivato for smart antenna systems. During his tenure at Malibu Networks, he designed and developed a qualityof-service-centric broadband wireless MAC. He has also held various technical positions with Honeywell, Sequent Computer Systems, and Lincom Wireless. He is currently with Aruba Networks. Ponnuswamy is the author of many publications and patents in the areas of wireless communication, realtime systems, and multiprocessor communication networks. He graduated with an M.S. in computer engineering from Wayne State University and a B.E. in electronics and communication engineering from the University of Madras, India. He is a member of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and the IEEE Communications Society.

Kenneth L. Stanwood is president and chief executive officer of Cygnus Communications, which makes products for wireless multimedia distribution. He was previously chief technology officer of Ensemble Communications, which produced local multipoint distribution services (LMDS) equipment and provided key technology to IEEE 802.16 and WiMAX. As a representative of Ensemble, Stanwood was one of the founders of the WiMAX Forum and served on its board of directors. Stanwood is vice-chair of the IEEE 802.16 Working Group and has been involved with IEEE 802.16 and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN) Technical Committee for over 6 years. He was a primary designer of the IEEE 802.16 MAC. He holds 11 patents and has numerous patent applications, all related to broadband wireless access. He received his master's degree from Stanford University.

Nico J.M. van Waes received an M.S.E.E from the Technical University Delft in the Netherlands in 1994 and a Ph.D. from New Jersey Institute of Technology in 1998. He joined the Wireless Router Division of Nokia Networks in 1999 as a systems engineer, working primarily on physical layer (PHY) and radio frequency (RF) issues as well as standardization. From 1999 till 2004, van Waes held various standards-related public positions such as chief technical editor of IEEE Std 802.16a, IEEE P802.16.2a, and early versions of IEEE P802.16d; area coordinator and editor for ETSI BRAN HiperMAN; and chair of the OFDM Forum's fixed wireless access (FWA) working group. From 2004 till 2005, he led Nokia Research Center's efforts in IEEE P802.11n standardization. Since early 2006, van Waes has been a manager with Nokia IPR, responsible among others for the IEEE 802.16 and IEEE 802.11 portfolios. He has half a dozen patents filed and is the author of several published papers.

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