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Wireless Video Communications: Second to Third Generation and Beyond

ISBN: 978-0-7803-6032-7
1092 pages
March 2001, Wiley-IEEE Press
Wireless Video Communications: Second to Third Generation and Beyond (078036032X) cover image
Bridging the gap between the video compression and communication communities, this unique volume provides an all-encompassing treatment of wireless video communications, compression, channel coding, and wireless transmission as a joint subject. WIRELESS VIDEO COMMUNICATIONS begins with relatively simple compression and information theoretical principles, continues through state-of-the-art and future concepts, and concludes with implementation-ready system solutions.

This book's deductive presentation and broad scope make it essential for anyone interested in wireless communications. It systematically converts the lessons of Shannon's information theory into design principles applicable to practical wireless systems. It provides in a comprehensive manner "implementation-ready" overall system design and performance studies, giving cognizance to the contradictory design requirements of video quality, bit rate, delay, complexity error resilience, and other related system design aspects.

Topics covered include

  • information theoretical foundations
  • block-based and convolutional channel coding
  • very-low-bit-rate video codecs and multimode videophone transceivers
  • high-resolution video coding using both proprietary and standard schemes
  • CDMA/OFDM systems, third-generation and beyond adaptive video systems.

WIRELESS VIDEO COMMUNICATIONS is a valuable reference for postgraduate researchers, system engineers, industrialists, managers and visual communications practitioners.

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Preface xxiii

Acknowledgments xxix

Contributors xxxi

I Transmission Issues 1

1 Information Theory 3

1.1 Issues in Information Theory 3

1.2 Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel 7

1.3 Information of a Source 11

1.4 Average Information of Discrete Memoryless Sources 12

1.5 Source Coding for a Discrete Memoryless Source 15

1.6 Average Information of Discrete Sources Exhibiting Memory 22

1.7 Examples 25

1.8 Generating Model Sources 28

1.9 Run-Length Coding for Discrete Sources Exhibiting Memory 31

1.10 Information Transmission via Discrete Channels 34

1.11 Capacity of Discrete Channels 49

1.12 Shannon's Channel Coding Theorem 53

1.13 Capacity of Continuous Channels 55

1.14 Shannon's Message and Its Implications for Wireless Channels . . . . 62

1.15 Summary and Conclusions 65

2 The Propagation Environment 67

2.1 The Cellular Concept 67

2.2 Radio Wave Propagation 71

2.3 Summary and Conclusions 92

3 Convolutional Channel Coding 93

3.1 Brief Channel Coding History 93

3.2 Convolutional Encoding 94

3.3 State and Trellis Transitions 96

3.4 The Viterbi Algorithm 98

3.5 Summary and Conclusions 106

4 Block-Based Channel Coding 107

4.1 Introduction 107

4.2 Finite Fields 108

4.3 Reed-Solomon and Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem Block Codes . . . . 114

4.4 RS and BCH Codec Performance 156

4.5 Summary and Conclusions 158

5 Modulation and Transmission Techniques 161

5.1 Modulation Issues 161

5.2 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 197

5.3 Packet Reservation Multiple Access 201

5.4 Flexible Transceiver Architecture 202

5.5 Summary and Conclusions 204

6 Video Traffic Modeling and Multiple Access 205

6.1 Video Traffic Modeling 205

6.2 Multiple Access 223

6.3 Summary and Conclusions 243

7 Co-Channel Interference 247

7.1 Introduction 247

7.2 Factors Controlling Co-Channel Interference 248

7.3 Theoretical Signal-to-Interference Ratio 252

7.4 Simulation Parameters 255

7.5 Results for Multiple Interferers 258

7.6 Results for a Single Interferer 269

7.7 Summary and Conclusions 284

8 Channel Allocation 287

8.1 Introduction 287

8.2 Overview of Channel Allocation 288

8.3 Simulation of the Channel Allocation Algorithms 299

8.4 Performance Comparisons 310

8.5 Summary and Conclusions 335

9 Second-Generation Mobile Systems 339

9.1 The Wireless Communications Scene 339

9.2 Global System for Mobile Communications — GSM 342

10 CDMA Systems: Third-Generation and Beyond 365

10.1 Introduction 365

10.2 Basic CDMA System 366

10.3 Third-Generation Wireless Mobile Communication Systems 392

10.4 Summary and Conclusions 455

II Video Systems Based on Proprietary Video Codecs 457

11 Fractal Image Codecs 459

11.1 Fractal Principles 459

11.2 One-Dimensional Fractal Coding 462

11.3 Error Sensitivity and Complexity 471

11.4 Summary and Conclusions 473

12 Very Low Bit-Rate DCT Codecs 475

12.1 Video Codec Outline 475

12.2 The Principle of Motion Compensation 477

12.3 Transform Coding 492

12.4 The Codec Outline 499

12.5 Initial Intra-Prame Coding 502

12.6 Gain-Controlled Motion Compensation 502

12.7 The MCER Active/Passive Concept . 503

12.8 Partial Forced Update of the Reconstructed Frame Buffers 504

12.9 The Gain/Cost-Controlled Inter-Frame Codec 506

12.10 The Bit-Allocation Strategy 509

12.11Results 510

12.12 DCT Codec Performance under Erroneous Conditions 512

12.13 DCT-Based Low-Rate Video Transceivers 516

12.14 System Performance 524

12.15 Summary and Conclusions 535

13 VQ Codecs and Multimode Video Transceivers 537

13.1 Introduction 537

13.2 The Codebook Design 537

13.3 The Vector Quantizer Design 541

13.4 Performance under Erroneous Conditions 550

13.5 VQ-Based Low-Rate Video Transceivers 554

13.6 System Performance 558

13.7 Summary and Conclusions 564

14 Low Bit-Rate Parametric Quad-Tree-Based Codecs and Multimode Videophone Transceivers 567

14.1 Introduction 567

14.2 Quad-Tree Decomposition 568

14.3 Quad-Tree Intensity Match 571

14.4 Model-Based Parametric Enhancement 576

14.5 The Enhanced QT Codec 582

14.6 Performance under Erroneous Conditions 583

14.7 QT-Codec-Based Video Transceivers 586

14.8 QT-Based Video-Transceiver Performance 591

14.9 Summary of QT-Based Video Transceivers 595

14.lOSummary of Low-Rate Codecs/Transceivers 595

III High-Resolution Image Coding 601

15 Low-Complexity Techniques 603

15.1 Introduction and Video Formats 603

15.2 Differential Pulse Code Modulation 608

15.3 Block Truncation Coding 613

15.4 Subband Coding 618

15.5 Run-Length-Based Intra-Frame Subband Coding 630

15.6 Summary and Conclusions 637

16 High-Resolution DCT Coding 639

16.1 Introduction 639

16.2 Intra-Frame Quantizer Training 639

16.3 Motion Compensation for High-Quality Images 644

16.4 Inter-Frame DCT Coding 650

16.5 The Proposed Codec 658

16.6 Summary and Conclusions 669

IV Video Systems Based on Standard Video Codecs 673

17 An ARQ-Assisted H.261-Based Reconfigurable Multilevel Videophone System 675

17.1 Introduction 675

17.2 The H.261 Video Coding Standard 675

17.3 Effect of Transmission Errors on the H.261 Codec 692

17.4 A Wireless Reconfigurable Videophone System 710

17.5 H.261-Based Wireless Videophone System Performance 721

17.6 Summary and Conclusions 731

18 Comparison of the H.261 and H.263 Codecs 733

18.1 Introduction 733

18.2 The H.263 Coding Algorithms 735

18.3 Performance Results 757

18.4 Summary and Conclusions 776

19 A H.263 Videophone System for Use over Mobile Channels 777

19.1 Introduction 777

19.2 H.263 in a Mobile Environment 777

19.3 Design of an Error-Resilient Reconfigurable Videophone System . . . . 781

19.4 H.263-Based Video System Performance 790

19.5 Transmission Feedback 806

19.6 Summary and Conclusions 816

20 Error Rate Based Power Control 819

20.1 Background 819

20.2 Power Control Algorithm 819

20.3 Performance of the Power Control 824

20.4 Multimode Performance 832

20.5 Average Transmission Power 834

20.6 Optimization of Power Control Parameters 838

20.7 Power Control Performance at Various Speeds 845

20.8 Multiple Interferers 855

20.9 Summary and Conclusions 859

21 Adaptive Single-Carrier, Multicarrier, and CDMA-based Video Systems 861

21.1 Turbo-equalised H.263-based videophony for GSM/GPRS 861

21.2 Adaptive QAM-based Wireless Videophony 875

21.3 UMTS-like Burst-by-burst Adaptive CDMA Videophony 894

21.4 H.263/OFDM-Based Video Systems for Frequency-Selective Wireless Networks 908

21.5 Adaptive Turbo-coded OFDM-Based Videotelephony 927

21.6 Digital Terrestrial Video Broadcasting for Mobile Receivers 950

21.7 Satellite-Based Video Broadcasting 996

21.8 Summary and Conclusions 1018

21.9 Wireless Video System Design Principles 1020

Glossary 1023

Bibliography 1033

Subject Index 1065

Author Index 1081

About the Authors 1093

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Lajos Hanzo has enjoyed a prolific 24-year career during which he has held various research and academic positions in Hungary, Germany, and the United Kingdom. He has coauthored five books on mobile radio communications and published over 300 research papers on a variety of topics. Dr. Hanzo’s research interests cover the entire spectrum of mobile multimedia communications, including voice, audio, video and graphic source compression, channel coding, modulation, networking and the joint optimization of these system components. He holds a chair in communications in the Department of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton, England, and he is a consultant to Multiple Access Communications Ltd.

Peter J. Cherriman graduated in 1994 with an M.Eng. In information engineering from the University of Southampton. Since 1994, he has been with the Department of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton, where he completed his Ph.D. in mobile video networking. Dr. Cherriman is working on projects for the Mobile Virtual Centre of Excellence, U.K. His current areas of research include robust video coding, microcellular radio systems, power control, dynamic channel allocation, and multiple access protocols.

Jurgen Streit received his Diploma in electronic engineering from the Aachen University of Technology, Germany, in 1993. Since 1992 he has been with the Department of Electronics and Computer Science at the University of Southampton, working with the Mobile Multimedia Communications Research Group. Dr. Streit earned a Ph.D. in image coding, and he is currently working as a software consultant.

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