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Understanding and Facilitating Organizational Change in the 21st Century: Recent Research and Conceptualizations: ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Volume 28, Number 4

ISBN: 978-0-7879-5837-4
120 pages
October 2001, Jossey-Bass
Understanding and Facilitating Organizational Change in the 21st Century: Recent Research and Conceptualizations: ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Volume 28, Number 4 (0787958379) cover image
There is a widespread discontent with the quality of education and levels of college student achievement, particularly for undergraduates preparing for the professions. This report examines the educational challenges in preparing professionals, reviews the specific types of curriculum innovations that faculty and administrators have created or significantly revised to strengthen college graduates' abilities, and focuses on the societal changes and expectations produced by the acceleration in technology.
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Foreword xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Understanding and Facilitating Organizational Change in the 21st Century: Recent Research and Conceptualizations 1

Distinctive Contribution 3

Focus of the Monograph 4

Audience 7

To Change or Not to Change? 8

Providing a Common Language for Understanding Organizational Change 11

What Is Organizational Change? 12

Diffusion, Institutionalization, Adaptation, Innovation, and Reform 13

Forces and Sources 15

Degree of Change 16

Timing of Change 17

Scale of Change 18

Focus of Change 19

Adaptive/Generative 20

Intentionality: Planned Versus Unplanned Change 20

Response Time: Proactive and Reactive 21

Active and Static 21

Target of Change: Change Process and Outcomes 22

Summary 23

Theories and Models of Organizational Change 25

Typology of Organizational Change Models 26

Evolutionary 28

Teleological 32

Life Cycle 36

Dialectical 40

Social Cognition 44

Cultural 49

Multiple Models 53

Summary 55

Appendix 57

Understanding the Nature of Higher Education Organizations: Key to Successful Organizational Change 59

Interdependent Organizations 62

Relatively Independent of Environment 63

Unique Organizational Cultures of the Academy 65

Institutional Status 66

Values-Driven: Complex and Contrasting 67

Multiple Power and Authority Structures 68

Loosely Coupled Structure 70

Organized Anarchical Decision Making 71

Professional and Administrative Values 72

Shared Governance System 73

Employee Commitment and Tenure 74

Goal Ambiguity 75

Image and Success 76

Summary 76

Higher Education Models of Change: Examination Through the Typology of Six Models 79

Evolutionary 80

Teleological 86

Life Cycle 92

Dialectical 93

Social Cognition 99

Cultural 105

Multiple Models 109

Summary 111

Research-Based Principles of Change 113

Promote Organizational Self-Discovery 114

Realize That the Culture of the Institution (and Institutional Type) Affects Change 115

Be Aware of Politics 115

Lay Groundwork 116

Focus on Adaptability 117

Facilitate Interaction to Develop New Mental Models and Sensemaking 118

Strive to Create Homeostasis and Balance External Forces with the Internal Environment 118

Combine Traditional Teleological Tools, Such As Establishing a Vision, Planning, or Strategy,With Social-Cognition, Symbolic, and Political Strategies 119

Realize That Change Is a Disorderly Process 119

Promote Shared Governance or Collective Decision Making 119

Articulate and Maintain Core Characteristics 120

Be Aware of Image 120

Connect the Change Process to Individual and Institutional Identity 121

Create a Culture of Risk and Help People to Change Belief Systems 121

Realize That Various Levels or Aspects of the Organization Will Need Different Change Models 121

Know That Strategies for Change Vary by Change Initiative 122

Consider Combining Models or Approaches, As Is Demonstrated Within the Multiple Models 122

Summary 123

Future Research on Organizational Change 125

References 133

Name Index 149

Subject Index 153

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