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Improving On-the-Job Training: How to Establish and Operate a Comprehensive OJT Program, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-7879-7373-5
192 pages
March 2004, Pfeiffer
Improving On-the-Job Training: How to Establish and Operate a Comprehensive OJT Program, 2nd Edition (0787973734) cover image


This second edition of the best-selling book, Improving On-The-Job Training, provides professional trainers, HR managers, and line managers with a hands-on resource for installing a low-cost, low tech approach to planned on-the-job training program that will improve real-time work performance throughout an entire organization. A comprehensive volume, Improving On-The-Job Training
  • Offers guidelines for establishing an OJT program.
  • Outlines the key management issues that should be addressed when starting up a program.
  • Describes effective methods of training the trainers and learners.
  • Shows how to identify the need for planned on-the-job-training.
  • Explains how to analyze work, worker, and workplace OJT.
  • Offers vital information for preparing and presenting on-the-job training.
  • Illustrates how to evaluate results of OJT.
  • Describes aids to planned on-the-job training.
  • Includes six valuable lessons about planned OJT programs.
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Table of Contents

List of Tables, Figures, and Exhibits xi

Introduction: Getting the Most From This Resource xiv

Why Improve OTJ? xv

Purpose xvii

Overview of the Contents xvii

Pretest: Does Your Organization Need a Planned On-the-Job Training Program? xix

The Pretest xix

Scoring and Interpreting the Pretest xxi

PART ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF OJT: Building an Effective Organizational Climate to Support OJT 1

1 The Benefits of Effective On-the-Job Training 3

Unplanned OJT: A Case Study 4

Importance of OJT 5

Coaching, Mentoring, and OJT 7

A Short History of Planned OJT 8

Research on Planned OJT 9

Barriers to OJT 11

Surmounting Barriers to OJT 12

Summary 13

2 Building the Right Foundation: From Identifying Goals to Establishing an Action Plan 14

Determine Program Purpose 14

Clarify Program Goals and Objectives 17

Identify Program Customers 18

Formulate Program Policy and Philosophy 19

Develop Program Action Plan and Schedule 10

Summary 20

3 Ensuring Sound Management and Consistent Results 21

Oversight Responsibility 21

Rewards and Incentives 23

Budgeting and Funding 25

Record Keeping 26

Summary 27

4 Preparing Trainers and Learners 28

Training the Trainers 28

Training the Learners 35

Summary 41


5 Discovering Needs: How to Determine When OJT Is Appropriate 45

The DAPPER Model 45

Questions That Determine OJT Needs 46

Summary 57

6 Analyzing Work, Worker, and Workplace: How to Fit the Training to the Job 59

Work Analysis 59

Worker Analysis 69

Workplace Analysis 74

Summary 74

7 Preparing the Training Plan: How to Develop the Right Sequence of Activities 76

Steps for Preparing OJT 76

Designing Instructional Materials 80

Summary 93

8 Presenting the Training: How to Conduct the OJT Session 96

Desirable Characteristics of Trainers and Learners 96

Steps Governing OJT Presentation 98

Summary 102

9 Evaluating Results: How to Assess Post-Training Job Performance 104

OJT and Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation 104

Level 1: Evaluating Reactions 105

Level 2: Evaluating Learning 108

Level 3: Evaluating Behavioral Change 111

Level 4: Evaluating Organizational Results 114

OJT and the Balanced Scorecard 118

Summary 118

10 Reviewing Aids and Alternatives to OJT: How to Ensure the Right Mix of Performance Interventions 119

Determining Whether an Aid or Alternative Is Needed 119

Aids to OJT 120

Additional Tools to Support OJT 128

Researching Corporate Culture-Specific Competency Development Strategies 134

Summary 139


11 Six Important Success Factors for Comprehensive OJT Programs 143

Success Factor 1: Avoid Discrimination in OJT 143

Success Factor 2: Enlist the Participation of Key People 144

Success Factor 3: Encourage the Preparation of Current Job Descriptions—But Plan for the Future 145

Success Factor 4: Integrate Internship, Cooperative Education, and Apprenticeship Programs with OJT 145

Success Factor 5: Establish Measurable Job Performance Standards and Objectives and Link Them to OJT 148

Success Factor 6: Plan for Cross-Training and Multiskilling 149

Glossary 153

References 156

About the Authors 167

Index 169

Pfeiffer Publications Guide 179

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Author Information

William J. Rothwell is professor in charge of workforce learning and performance in the Workforce Education and Development Program in the Department of Learning & Performance Systems, College of Education, The Pennsylvania State University. He is co-editor of Practicing Organization Development, and author of The Action Learning Guidebook, from Pfeiffer.

H.C. Kazanas is professor emeritus of education at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and now resides in Naples, Florida.
Rothwell and Kazanas are the co-authors of Mastering the Instructional Design Process, 3rd edition from Pfeiffer.

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“An excellent contribution to the field, this book offers a realistic, practical focus on OJT, which is probably the most common form of training. It’s too easy for people to think that OJT is simple, when in fact success with OJT is elusive. This book will show you how to do it. Improving On-The-Job Training will show practitioners how to establish and run an effective OJT program.”
—Timothy W. Spannaus, research fellow, Institute for Learning and Performance Improvement, senior lecturer, Instructional Technology, Wayne State University

“As we expand our businesses, we will need workers to perform more complex tasks effectively. This book gives us an excellent model to implement OJT in real time and in real workplaces to create a high- performance workforce.”
—William H. Lowthert, leadership development manager, PPL Susquehanna

“Rothwell, a world-renowned training expert, addresses one of the most critical areas of training used by all businesses and is also the most common form of training, on-the-job training. This book will provide an invaluable tool fo r any business to use to systematically develop successful OJT programs. The information in this book will assist companies in improving their performance and productivity through the proven methods recommended by William Rothwell.”
—Patrick E. Gerity, executive director, Office of Corporate Partnerships, Slippery Rock University

“I was in the technical training business for over 30 years, 19 as the technical training manager for a Fortune 500 company before retiring. In all these years I’ve have seen many new approaches to training, but in reviewing all the new methods it still comes down to the most successful way of training especially hands-on and that is on-the-job training. This book provides a step-by-step practical methodology to improve performance. If companies would just follow the concepts in this book and adhere to them, training would be a normal part of an operation and the need for justification would no longer exist.”
—Joseph A. Benkowski, associate dean outreach, University of Wisconsin-Stout

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