Improving On-the-Job Training: How to Establish and Operate a Comprehensive OJT Program, 2nd Edition
March 2004, Pfeiffer
- Offers guidelines for establishing an OJT program.
- Outlines the key management issues that should be addressed when starting up a program.
- Describes effective methods of training the trainers and learners.
- Shows how to identify the need for planned on-the-job-training.
- Explains how to analyze work, worker, and workplace OJT.
- Offers vital information for preparing and presenting on-the-job training.
- Illustrates how to evaluate results of OJT.
- Describes aids to planned on-the-job training.
- Includes six valuable lessons about planned OJT programs.
List of Tables, Figures, and Exhibits xi
Introduction: Getting the Most From This Resource xiv
Why Improve OTJ? xv
Overview of the Contents xvii
Pretest: Does Your Organization Need a Planned On-the-Job Training Program? xix
The Pretest xix
Scoring and Interpreting the Pretest xxi
PART ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF OJT: Building an Effective Organizational Climate to Support OJT 1
1 The Benefits of Effective On-the-Job Training 3
Unplanned OJT: A Case Study 4
Importance of OJT 5
Coaching, Mentoring, and OJT 7
A Short History of Planned OJT 8
Research on Planned OJT 9
Barriers to OJT 11
Surmounting Barriers to OJT 12
2 Building the Right Foundation: From Identifying Goals to Establishing an Action Plan 14
Determine Program Purpose 14
Clarify Program Goals and Objectives 17
Identify Program Customers 18
Formulate Program Policy and Philosophy 19
Develop Program Action Plan and Schedule 10
3 Ensuring Sound Management and Consistent Results 21
Oversight Responsibility 21
Rewards and Incentives 23
Budgeting and Funding 25
Record Keeping 26
4 Preparing Trainers and Learners 28
Training the Trainers 28
Training the Learners 35
PART TWO: PREPARING AND DELIVERING OJT 43
5 Discovering Needs: How to Determine When OJT Is Appropriate 45
The DAPPER Model 45
Questions That Determine OJT Needs 46
6 Analyzing Work, Worker, and Workplace: How to Fit the Training to the Job 59
Work Analysis 59
Worker Analysis 69
Workplace Analysis 74
7 Preparing the Training Plan: How to Develop the Right Sequence of Activities 76
Steps for Preparing OJT 76
Designing Instructional Materials 80
8 Presenting the Training: How to Conduct the OJT Session 96
Desirable Characteristics of Trainers and Learners 96
Steps Governing OJT Presentation 98
9 Evaluating Results: How to Assess Post-Training Job Performance 104
OJT and Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation 104
Level 1: Evaluating Reactions 105
Level 2: Evaluating Learning 108
Level 3: Evaluating Behavioral Change 111
Level 4: Evaluating Organizational Results 114
OJT and the Balanced Scorecard 118
10 Reviewing Aids and Alternatives to OJT: How to Ensure the Right Mix of Performance Interventions 119
Determining Whether an Aid or Alternative Is Needed 119
Aids to OJT 120
Additional Tools to Support OJT 128
Researching Corporate Culture-Specific Competency Development Strategies 134
PART THREE: REFLECTIONS ON OJT 141
11 Six Important Success Factors for Comprehensive OJT Programs 143
Success Factor 1: Avoid Discrimination in OJT 143
Success Factor 2: Enlist the Participation of Key People 144
Success Factor 3: Encourage the Preparation of Current Job DescriptionsBut Plan for the Future 145
Success Factor 4: Integrate Internship, Cooperative Education, and Apprenticeship Programs with OJT 145
Success Factor 5: Establish Measurable Job Performance Standards and Objectives and Link Them to OJT 148
Success Factor 6: Plan for Cross-Training and Multiskilling 149
About the Authors 167
Pfeiffer Publications Guide 179
H.C. Kazanas is professor emeritus of education at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and now resides in Naples, Florida.
Rothwell and Kazanas are the co-authors of Mastering the Instructional Design Process, 3rd edition from Pfeiffer.
Timothy W. Spannaus, research fellow, Institute for Learning and Performance Improvement, senior lecturer, Instructional Technology, Wayne State University
“As we expand our businesses, we will need workers to perform more complex tasks effectively. This book gives us an excellent model to implement OJT in real time and in real workplaces to create a high- performance workforce.”
William H. Lowthert, leadership development manager, PPL Susquehanna
“Rothwell, a world-renowned training expert, addresses one of the most critical areas of training used by all businesses and is also the most common form of training, on-the-job training. This book will provide an invaluable tool fo r any business to use to systematically develop successful OJT programs. The information in this book will assist companies in improving their performance and productivity through the proven methods recommended by William Rothwell.”
Patrick E. Gerity, executive director, Office of Corporate Partnerships, Slippery Rock University
“I was in the technical training business for over 30 years, 19 as the technical training manager for a Fortune 500 company before retiring. In all these years I’ve have seen many new approaches to training, but in reviewing all the new methods it still comes down to the most successful way of training especially hands-on and that is on-the-job training. This book provides a step-by-step practical methodology to improve performance. If companies would just follow the concepts in this book and adhere to them, training would be a normal part of an operation and the need for justification would no longer exist.”
Joseph A. Benkowski, associate dean outreach, University of Wisconsin-Stout