Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load
December 2005, Pfeiffer
PART ONE. AN INTRODUCTION TO EFFICIENCY IN LEARNING.
1. Cognitive Load and Efficiency in Learning.
2. The Psychology of Efficiency.
PART TWO. BASIC GUIDELINES FOR MANAGING (IRRELEVANT) COGNITIVE LOAD.
3. Use Visuals and Audio Narration to Exploit Working Memory Resources.
4. Focus Attention and Avoid Split Attention.
5. Weed Your Training to Manage Limited Working Memory Capacity.
6. Provide External Memory Support to Reduce Working Memory Load.
7. Use Segmenting, Sequencing, and Learner Pacing to Impose Content Gradually.
8. Transition from Worked Examples to Practice to Impose Mental Work Gradually.
PART THREE. INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDELINES FOR IMPOSING RELEVANT COGNITIVE LOAD.
9. Put Working Memory to Work with Germane Load.
PART FOUR. TAILORING INSTRUCTION TO LEARNER EXPERTISE.
10. Accommodate Differences in Learner Expertise.
11. Use Rapid Testing to Adapt e-Learning to Learner Expertise.
PART FIVE. COGNITIVE LOAD THEORY IN PERSPECTIVE.
12. Applying Cognitive Load Theory.
13. The Evolution of Cognitive Load Theory: A Personal Perspective by John Sweller.
Appendix: All About the Numbers.
About the Authors.
List of Figures and Tables.
How to Use the CD-ROM.
John Sweller is the founder of Cognitive Load Theory and it’s most ardent researcher and advocate. The Web of Science records that his work has been cited on over 1,500 occasions -- with a rapidly increasing citation rate. He has been published in nearly 70 refereed journals and is the author of the seminal Instructional Design in Technical Areas. In recent years he has further developed general cognitive theory in the hope that this development can lead to further instructional applications. He has been a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences of Australia since 1993. He currently teaches at the School of Education at the University of New South Wales. He lives in Sydney, Australia.
Frank Nguyen, currently the e-Learning Technology Manager for the Intel eBusiness Training group, is responsible for providing tools and processes to enable online learning for 100+ training developers and 45,000 employees worldwide. Prior to Intel, Frank worked as a systems engineer for a national computer distributor and built automation systems for several Fortunate 500 companies. Frank is currently a doctoral student in Educational Technology at Arizona State University focusing on the convergence of eLearning and electronic performance support systems (EPSS).
—Rob Foshay, senior vice president, Instructional Design and Research, Whitney University
"Riveting reading for anyone who wants to understand human
mental processes and how they influence our behavior."
—Nancy Curtis, instructional designer, Element K
"Provides a distinguished example demonstrating how research
findings can be made usable for practitioners."
—Alexander Renkl, professor, Department of Psychology, Educational Psychology, University of Freiburg
"Research on cognitive load theory has yielded many guidelines
for the design of effective instruction. This excellent book
clearly describes and illustrates those guidelines for
practitioners in the field of education and training."
—Jeroen J.G. van Merrienboer, coauthor, Integrated E-Learning
"Nowhere else in book form will you find the guidelines that are
—Timothy W. Spannaus, instructional technology, Wayne State University
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