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Aquaculture Production Systems

ISBN: 978-0-8138-0126-1
440 pages
June 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Aquaculture Production Systems (0813801265) cover image

Aquaculture is an increasingly diverse industry with an ever-growing number of species cultured and production systems available to professionals. A basic understanding of production systems is vital to the successful practice of aquaculture.

Published with the World Aquaculture Society, Aquaculture Production Systems captures the huge diversity of production systems used in the production of shellfish and finfish in one concise volume that allows the reader to better understand how aquaculture depends upon and interacts with its environment.

The systems examined range from low input methods to super-intensive systems. Divided into five sections that each focus on a distinct family of systems, Aquaculture Production Systems serves as an excellent text to those just being introduced to aquaculture as well as being a valuable reference to well-established professionals seeking information on production methods.

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Contributors xi

Preface xiv

Acknowledgments xvi

1 The Role of Aquaculture 3
James H. Tidwell and Geoff Allan

1.1 Seafood demand 3

1.2 Seafood supply 4

1.3 Seafood trade 6

1.4 Status of aquaculture 7

1.5 Production systems 12

1.6 The future and the challenge 13

1.7 References 13

2 History of Aquaculture 15
Robert R. Stickney and Granvil D. Treece

2.1 Beginnings of aquaculture 16

2.2 Expansion prior to the mid-1800s 17

2.3 The explosion of hatcheries 18

2.4 Art becomes science 20

2.5 Commercial finfish species development 23

2.6 Shrimp culture 33

2.7 Mollusk culture 42

2.8 Controversy 43

2.9 References 44

3 Functions and Characteristics of All Aquaculture Systems 51
James H. Tidwell

3.1 Differences in aquatic and terrestrial livestock 51

3.2 Ecological services provided by aquaculture production systems 53

3.3 Diversity of aquaculture animals 53

3.4 Temperature classifications of aquacultured animals 54

3.5 Temperature control in aquaculture systems 56

3.6 Providing oxygen in aquaculture systems 58

3.7 Waste control in aquaculture systems 59

3.8 Aquaculture systems as providers of natural foods 61

3.9 References 62

4 Characterization and Categories of Aquaculture Production Systems 64
James H. Tidwell

4.1 Open systems 65

4.2 Semi-closed systems 68

4.3 Closed systems 73

4.4 Hybrid systems 75

4.5 References 77

5 Shellfish Aquaculture 79
Robert Rheault

5.1 Major species in culture (oysters, clams, scallops, mussels) 80

5.2 History 81

5.3 Biology 84

5.4 Culture basics 86

5.5 Extensive versus intensive culture 88

5.6 Spat collection: hatchery, nursery, growout 89

5.7 Cultured algae 91

5.8 Spawning 92

5.9 Larval development 93

5.10 Setting 94

5.11 Nursery and growout scale considerations 96

5.12 Nursery methods 97

5.13 Growout methods 100

5.14 Fouling 104

5.15 Fouling control strategies 104

5.16 Predation 105

5.17 Harvest 106

5.18 Food safety 107

5.19 Shellfish diseases 108

5.20 Disease management options 108

5.21 Genetics: selective breeding 109

5.22 Triploidy 110

5.23 Harmful algal blooms 110

5.24 Site selection 111

5.25 Carrying capacity 112

5.26 Permitting challenges 113

5.27 Nonnative species 114

5.28 References 115

6 Cage Culture in Freshwater and Protected Marine Areas 119
Michael P. Masser

6.1 Current status of cage culture 121

6.2 History and evolution of cage culture 122

6.3 Advantages and disadvantages of cages 123

6.4 Site selection 124

6.5 Stocking cages 125

6.6 Feeding caged fish 126

6.7 Polyculture and integrated systems 126

6.8 Problems with cage culture 127

6.9 Economics of cage culture 129

6.10 Sustainability issues 129

6.11 References 130

7 Ocean Cage Culture 135
Richard Langan

7.1 The context for open ocean farming 135

7.2 Characterization and selection of open ocean sites 137

7.3 Technologies for open ocean farming 139

7.4 Finfish species cultivated in open ocean cages 148

7.5 Environmental considerations 149

7.6 Future prospects and challenges 153

7.7 References 154

8 Reservoir Ranching 158
Steven D. Mims and Richard J. Onders

8.1 Reservoir ranching vs. culture-based fisheries 158

8.2 Reservoir 159

8.3 Natural processes of reservoirs 160

8.4 Selection of reservoirs for reservoir ranching 162

8.5 Fish species selection 164

8.6 Stocking density and size 165

8.7 Status of reservoir ranching around the world 166

8.8 Summary 170

8.9 References 171

9 Flow-through Raceways 173
Gary Fornshell, Jeff Hinshaw, and James H. Tidwell

9.1 Types of raceways 174

9.2 Physical requirements 177

9.3 Water requirements 179

9.4 Carrying capacity 180

9.5 Water consumption and waste management 183

9.6 Feeding and inventory management 186

9.7 Summary 187

9.8 References 189

10 Ponds 191
Craig Tucker and John Hargreaves

10.1 Species cultured 193

10.2 Pond types 195

10.3 Water use 198

10.4 Pond culture intensity and ecological services 201

10.5 Food in pond aquaculture 202

10.6 Life support in pond aquaculture 208

10.7 Land use and the ecological footprint of pond aquaculture 222

10.8 Consequences of unregulated algal growth 227

10.9 Practical constraints on pond aquaculture production 230

10.10 Comparative economics of culture systems 234

10.11 Sustainability issues 237

10.12 Trends and research needs 240

10.13 References 242

11 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems 245
James M. Ebeling and Michael B. Timmons

11.1 Positive attributes 246

11.2 Overview of system engineering 247

11.3 Culture tanks 249

11.4 Waste solids removal 250

11.5 Cornell dual-drain system 250

11.6 Settling basins and tanks 252

11.7 Mechanical filters 252

11.8 Granular media filters 253

11.9 Disposal of the solids 254

11.10 Biofiltration 254

11.11 Choice of biofilter 258

11.12 Aeration and oxygenation 259

11.13 Carbon dioxide removal 261

11.14 Monitoring and control 262

11.15 Current system engineering design 262

11.16 Recirculation system design 263

11.17 Four major water-treatment variables 265

11.18 Summary of four production terms 268

11.19 Stocking density 270

11.20 Engineering design example 270

11.21 Conclusion 276

11.22 References 277

12 Biofloc-based Aquaculture Systems 278
Craig L. Browdy, Andrew J. Ray, John W. Leffler, and Yoram Avnimelech

12.1 Bioflocs 280

12.2 Oxygen dynamics 284

12.3 Resuspension, mixing, and sludge management 287

12.4 Nitrogenous waste products 290

12.5 Temperature 296

12.6 Feeds and feeding 297

12.7 Economics 299

12.8 Sustainability 300

12.9 Outlook and research needs 302

12.10 Acknowledgment 303

12.11 References 303

13 Partitioned Aquaculture Systems 308
D. E. Brune, Craig Tucker, Mike Massingill, and Jesse Chappell

13.1 High rate ponds in aquaculture—the partitioned aquaculture system 311

13.2 PAS fingerling production 324

13.3 Flow-through PAS: the controlled eutrophication process 326

13.4 Photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic PAS for marine shrimp production 329

13.5 Alabama in-pond raceway system 331

13.6 Mississippi split-pond aquaculture system 333

13.7 California pondway system 336

13.8 References 340

14 Aquaponics—Integrating Fish and Plant Culture 343
James E. Rakocy

14.1 System design 345

14.2 Fish production 349

14.3 Solids 352

14.4 Biofiltration 357

14.5 Hydroponic subsystems 360

14.6 Sump 362

14.7 Construction materials 363

14.8 Component ratios 364

14.9 Plant growth requirements 366

14.10 Nutrient dynamics 368

14.11 Vegetable selection 372

14.12 Crop production systems 373

14.13 Pest and disease control 375

14.14 Approaches to system design 376

14.15 Economics 380

14.16 Prospects for the future 382

14.17 References 383

15 In-pond Raceways 387
Michael P. Masser

15.1 Development of the in-pond raceway 388

15.2 Stocking and feeding 390

15.3 Backup systems and disease treatments 391

15.4 Comparison to other culture systems 391

15.5 Sustainability issues 393

15.6 Future trends 393

15.7 References 393

16 On the Drawing Board 395
James H. Tidwell

16.1 Future trends 395

16.2 References 412

Index 415

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James H. Tidwell is Professor and Chair of the Division of Aquaculture at the Aquaculture Research Center at Kentucky State University.
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“The book provides both a valuable introduction to aquaculture for new students or the curious layman and serves as an indispensable reference for the seasoned academic or industry professional seeking the latest comprehensive information addressing aquaculture production systems and how they interact with the environment.”  (Journal of aquatic Food Product Technology, 27 February 2013)

“It will, however, be a useful resource for students and early-career aquaculture scientists. In addition, the book should be of interest to non-aquaculture professionals and practitioners who wish to have a compilation volume that gives concise overviews of the production systems that are used to farm aquatic animals.”  (Aquaculture International, 1 October 2012)

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