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The Seafood Industry: Species, Products, Processing, and Safety , 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-8138-0258-9
488 pages
May 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
The Seafood Industry: Species, Products, Processing, and Safety , 2nd Edition (081380258X) cover image
The Seafood Industry: Species, Products, Processing, and Safety, Second Edition is a completely updated and contemporary revision of Flick and Martin’s classic publication, The Seafood Industry. Covering all aspects of the commercial fish and shellfish industries – from harvest through consumption – the book thoroughly describes the commercial fishery of the western hemisphere. The international audience will also find the coverage accessible because, although species and regulations may differ, the techniques described are similar worldwide,. The second edition contains a significant expansion of the material included in the first edition. Examples include: high pressure processing; inclusion of additional major crustacean species of commerce; fishery centers and development programs; handling methods on fishing vessels; and new chapters on Toxins, Allergies, and Sensitivities; Composition and Quality; and Risk Management and HACCP; and Processing Fin Fish. The Seafood IndustrySpecies, Products, Processing, and Safety, comprehensive in scope and current with today’s issues, will prove to be a great asset to any industry professional or seafood technologist working in the field.
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Preface and Acknowledgments xiii

Contributors xv

1 A History of the Seafood Industry 1
Roy E. Martin

The fish curing industry 1

Fish canning 2

Canning salmon 3

The shrimp fishery 3

Canning oysters, clams, and crabs 5

The fish canning industry 6

The haddock fishery 8

Early Pacific fisheries 9

The menhaden fishery 10

The whaling industry 11

An overview of our heritage 12

Further reading 12

2 Harvesting Techniques 14
George J. Flick, Jr.

Classification of harvesting techniques 14

Nets 15

Trap and gear pot 20

Hook-and-line fishing 22

Shellfish dredging and scooping gear 24

Hand picking 25

Fishing optimization 25

Miscellaneous and experimental gear 25

Acknowledgment 26

Further reading 26

3 Groundfish 27
George J. Flick, Jr., and Laura S. Douglas

Introduction 27

Historical perspective 28

East Coast fishing industry: a historical perspective 28

West Coast fishing industry: a historical perspective 30

Species 32

East Coast 32

West Coast 41

Acknowledgments 44

References 45

Webliography 45

4 Pelagic Fish 48
Laura S. Douglas

Introduction 48

Species 49

Herrings, sardines, and anchovies 49

Tunas, bonitos, and billfishes 50

Miscellaneous pelagic fishes 52

Physical adaptation 53

Musculature 54

Preservation 54

Maine sardines 55

Brisling and sild (formerly Norway sardines) 55

Portuguese sardines 56

Tuna 56

Mackerel 56

Anchovies, Mediterranean style 57

Menhaden 57

Nutritional value 57

Labeling 58

Sardines and sardine-like products 58

Anchovies 59

Tunas 59

Quality factors 59

Brisling and sild (Norway sardines) 59

Portuguese sardines 59

Tunas 60

Mackerels 60

Anchovies, Mediterranean style 60

Acknowledgments 61

References 61

Webliography 61

5 Major Cultured Species 63
Lori S. Marsh

Importance of aquaculture 63

Production environments and systems 63

Pond systems 64

Enclosure and cage systems 64

Flow-through systems 65

Recirculating aquaculture systems 65

Common aquacultured species 65

Carps 66

Oysters 67

Clams, cockles, and arkshells 67

Shrimps and prawns 68

Tilapias 68

Salmons and trouts 69

Conclusions 70

References 70

Webliography 70

6 Shellfish—Mollusks 71
Robin Downey, Lori Marsh, and George J. Flick, Jr.

Mollusk farms and fisheries 71

Natural history 71

Feeding 72

The mollusk and public health 72

Conservation regulations 72

West Coast 73

Clam culture operations 73

Geoduck (giant clam) culture operations 73

Mussel culture operations 74

Oyster culture operations 74

Scallop culture operations 75

Abalone 75

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 76

Surf clams 76

Ocean quahog 77

Hard clam 78

Soft shell clam 79

Scallops 80

Oysters 80

Blue mussel 81

Acknowledgment 81

References 81

Webliography 82

7 Shellfish—Crustaceans 83
Michael J. Oesterling

Crabs 84

Blue crab 85

King crab 86

Cancer crabs 88

Shrimp 89

Penaeid shrimp 90

Pandalid shrimp 91

Lobster 92

Spiny lobsters 92

American lobster 93

Further reading 94

8 Underutilized (Latent) Fishery Species 95
Michael Jahncke and Daniel Kauffman

History of research programs on underutilized (latent) fishery species 95

Fishery development foundations 96

Saltenstall-Kennedy fishery development funds and sea grant research programs on underutilized (latent) species 97

Examples of past and current underutilized (latent) species development efforts 97

Dogfish 97

Pacific sardine 98

Atlantic red crab 99

Spin-offs from underutilized (latent) species research 99

Nongovernmental organization and consumer pressure for sustainable management 100

Future trends 101

Acknowledgments 101

References 101

Webilography 103

9 Processing Finfish 105
Lori Marsh and George J. Flick, Jr.

Filleting 105

Mince 106

Raw materials and sources 106

Separation processes 106

Washing 110

Mince stabilization 110

Mince products 112

Conclusions 114

Batters and breading 114

Mesh 115

Browning rate 115

Moisture and oil absorption 115

Battered and breaded seafoods 115

Quality assurance of battered and breaded seafood products 116

Acknowledgments 117

References 117

Webliography 117

10 Surimi and Fish Protein Isolate 118
Jae W. Park

Introduction 118

Manufacturing of surimi 119

Refining 121

Freezing, metal detection, and frozen storage 121

Factors affecting surimi quality 122

Surimi gel preparation and measurement 122

Fish protein isolate 123

What is fish protein isolate? 123

Superior gelling properties of FPI 124

Utilization of surimi and fish protein isolate 124

References 126

11 Waste (By-Product) Utilization 128
Lori Marsh and Peter J. Bechtel

Human consumption 129

Mince 129

Roe 130

Fish heads 130

Pharmaceutical nutraceuticals and other products 130

Aquacultural, agricultural, and bulk food uses 131

Fish hydrolysates 131

Fertilizer and compost 131

Nonnutritional uses 132

Biodiesel and fuel 132

Chitin and chitosan 132

Carotenoid pigments 133

Leather and gelatin 133

References 133

12 Processing Mollusks 136
George J. Flick, Jr.

Processing for the live market 136

Processing for the fresh market 137

Bivalves 137

Gastropods 138

Further processing 139

Batter and breading operations 139

Freezing 139

Canning 140

Pickled mollusks 142

High pressure processing 142

Irradiation and electron beam 145

Steam tunnel 145

Heat shock 147

Postharvest processes 147

Postharvest processing validation/verification guidance for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus 148

Flavoring agents from processing effluents 148

Acknowledgment 149

References 149

Further reading 149

13 Processing Crustaceans 151
Lori S. Marsh

Crabs 151

Swimming or blue crabs 151

Further processing 153

King crab 153

Dungeness crab 154

Stone crab 154

Jonah crab and rock crab 154

Lobster 155

Shrimp 155

Paste shrimp 155

Cold-water shrimp 156

Warm-water shrimp 156

Shrimp processing on board the capture vessel 156

Crawfish 158

Harvesting crawfish 158

Grading 158

Cooking 158

Packaging 159

Other freshwater crawfish products 159

Acknowledgment 159

References 159

Webliography 160

14 Freshwater Fish 161
Denise Skonberg and Thomas E. Rippen

Current status 161

Other fisheries 162

Markets/processing 163

Composition and quality 163

Shelf life 163

Red versus white muscle 163

Nutrient composition 164

Consumer preference 164

Off-flavors 165

Parasites 165

Contaminants 165

Selected species 166

Whitefish 166

Lake whitefish 166

Chubs (lake herring) 166

Other whitefish 166

Yellow perch 167

Walleye 167

Lake trout 168

Smelt 168

Catfish 168

Other species 169

Acknowledgments 170

Further reading 170

Webliography 171

15 Nutrition and Preparation 172
Doris T. Hicks

Introduction 172

Make smart choices from every food group 173

Nutrient intake recommendations 173

Major nutrients 173

Protein 173

Fat 174

Water 175

Minerals 175

Trace minerals 177

Vitamins 178

Water-soluble vitamins 179

Nutrition labeling for seafood 180

What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish 181

Allergens 182

Buying seafood 182

Whole fish 182

Fish fillets or steaks 182

Shellfish 183

Label-dated seafood 183

Mail-order seafood 183

Handling and storing fresh seafood 183

Buying frozen seafood 184

Preparation 186

Keeping it clean 186

Cooking: general rules 186

Serving seafood 190

Acknowledgment 191

Further reading 191

Webliography 192

16 Species Identification of Seafood 193
LeeAnn Applewhite, Rosalee Rasmussen, and Michael Morrissey

Significance of problem 194

Types of species substitution 194

Background 195

Comparison of protein- and DNA-based methods 196

DNA-based methods 196

DNA extraction 196

DNA amplification 197

Post-PCR analysis methods 201

Single-stranded conformational polymorphism 205

General summary of DNA-based methods 207

Current regulatory activity 207

Current commercial applications 209

Online resources 209

Challenges and emerging trends 210

DNA chips 211

Quantitative PCR 211

Electrochemical DNA sensors 212

Conclusions 212

References 212

Further reading 218

Webliography 218

17 Packaging 220
Joseph E. Marcy

Why package? 221

Containing and protecting the product 221

Product protection 221

Communication 223

Convenience 224

Package selection 225

Consumer/retail packaging 225

Bulk packaging techniques 227

Handling characteristics of packaging materials 228

Acknowledgment 229

References 229

Further reading 229

18 Freezing 230
Donald E. Kramer, Lyn D. Peters, and Edward Kolbe

Factors affecting frozen shelf life 230

Composition 231

Condition of the fish 232

Season of year 233

Rigor mortis 233

Freezing rate 234

Storage temperature 237

Packaging 238

Thawing 244

Temperature indicators 245

Acknowledgment 246

References 246

Further reading 247

19 Handling of Fresh Fish 249
Thomas E. Rippen and Denise Skonberg

Review of fish spoilage 249

Bacteria 249

Developing a scombrotoxin (histamine) control plan 250

Temperature effect 255

Ice advantages and uses 255

Ice in retail display cases 257

Other cooling systems 257

Bruises and cuts 257

Bacterial contamination 258

Washing and sanitizing 259

Further reading 259

20 Shellfish—Biological Safety 261
George J. Flick, Jr., and Linda Ankenman Granata

Shrimp 261

Shrimp production 262

Raw and processed shrimp 263

Ice storage of shrimp 264

Oysters 264

Postprocessing treatments of oysters 268

Mussels 269

Hepatitis A 269

Toxins 270

Parasites 271

Conclusions 272

References 272

21 Allergens, Decomposition, and Toxins 278
Sherwood Hall

Allergens 279

Decomposition 279

Biogenic amines 280

Seafood toxins 281

Some useful resources 282

Shellfish toxins and primary accumulation 282

Toxins that can be accumulated from plankton but are of uncertain risk to consumers 284

Palytoxins and Ostreopsis toxins 285

Pufferfish, intrinsic toxicity, and toxicity of uncertain origin 285

Distribution 286

Concepts and strategies for managing seafood toxins 286

Sampling, sample preparation, and the significance of a sample 289

Detection methods for toxicity monitoring 289

Elimination 292

History 292

Summary 293

References 293

Further reading 296

22 Cleaning and Sanitation 297
Nina Gritzai Parkinson

Cleaning 298

Surfaces to be cleaned 298

Nonfood-contact surfaces 298

Type of soil 298

Water properties 299

Temperature 299

Equipment and resources 300

Factors to consider when selecting the cleaning compound 300

Sanitizing 301

Chemical factors 302

Biological factors 303

Sanitizers 303

Iodine compounds 304

Quaternary ammonium compounds 304

Acid-anionic surfactants 305

Fatty acid sanitizers 305

Ozone 305

Peroxyacetic acid or peracetic acid solutions 305

Writing sanitation standard operating procedures 305

Acknowledgments 306

Further reading 306

Webliography 307

23 Implementing the Seafood HACCP Regulation 308
Pamela D. Tom

Overview of the seafood HACCP regulation and principles 308

HACCP training 311

Internet HACCP resources 312

Hazards guide 313

Generic HACCP plans and forms 314

Encore manual 314

Discussion list 315

HACCP inspection 315

Monitoring sanitation control procedures 316

Webliography 316

24 Aquaculture 318
Brian G. Bosworth

History of aquaculture 318

Types of aquaculture 319

Advantages and disadvantages of aquaculture 319

Basic requirements of aquaculture 320

Aquaculture production 321

Worldwide 321

United States 322

Culture systems and techniques 322

Catfish 322

Salmon and trout 323

Carp 324

Shrimp 324

Crawfish 324

Oysters 325

Aquatic plants and algae 325

Current issues related to aquaculture production 325

Future of aquaculture 326

Acknowledgment 326

References 326

25 Waste Treatment 327
Gregory D. Boardman

Seafood wastewater 327

Pollution parameters 328

Wastewater guidelines 330

Direct discharge 331

Municipal discharge 333

Waste treatment 334

In-plant controls 334

Reuse and recycling 336

Segregation of waters 337

End-of-pipe treatment 337

Residuals management 344

Conclusions 345

Acknowledgment 346

References 346

Further reading 347

26 Fish Meal and Oil 348
Anthony P. Bimbo

Introduction 348

Production of fish meal 353

Raw material 353

Harvesting 354

Unloading 354

Cooking 355

Pressing 356

Drying 356

Antioxidant addition 357

Storage and shipping 359

Production of crude fish oil 359

Solids removal 360

Oil–water separation 360

Polishing or oil purification 360

Production of stickwater concentrate 360

Evaporation 360

Other production methods 361

Dry rendering 361

Various silage products 361

Hydrolyzates 362

Pollution control 362

Water effluent 363

Gaseous effluent 363

Markets 364

Fish meal 364

Crude fish oil 364

Global aquaculture market 368

References 371

Further reading 373

Webliography 373

27 Regulations 374
Roy E. Martin

Food and Drug Administration 374

Common or usual names 375

Imitations 376

Poisonous and deleterious substances 378

Good manufacturing practices 379

Revision of umbrella GMPs 380

Emergency permit control 380

Labeling 380

Nutrient content descriptors 383

Other definitions 384

“Fresh” 385

Health claims 385

Ingredient labeling 386

Advertising 386

Enforcement 386

Mandatory seafood inspection 387

Imports 389

Bioterrorism 390

Exports 391

Fines 391

National Marine Fisheries Service 391

Inspections 392

Lacey Act 393

Penalties 394

Questions and answers concerning the Lacey Act 395

US Customs 395

Bulk containers 395

Other legislation 396

Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act 396

Optimum yield 396

Anadromous Fish Conservation Act 398

State regulations 400

Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference 401

Federal Trade Commission 401

False or misleading 401

Substantiation 401

Appendix 402

NMFS Inspection Services 402

Technical Assistance and Sanitary-Inspected Fish Establishment Services 402

Packed Under Federal Inspection Service 402

Product Grading Service 402

Lot Inspection Service 402

Further reading 403

28 Smoked, Cured, and Dried Fish 404
George J. Flick, Jr., and David D. Kuhn

Economic importance 405

Principles of smoking, drying, and curing 405

Smoked fish processing 406

Purchasing and receiving 407

Raw material storage 407

Raw material preparation 408

Salting 409

Drying fish 413

Smoking 415

Cooling 419

Spoilage and contamination of smoked fish 420

Effect of smoking on composition 421

Dried salted fish 422

Dried fish 422

Pickled fish 423

Government regulations 423

Personnel 423

Quality control 425

Acknowledgment 425

References 425

Further reading 426

29 Transportation, Distribution, Warehousing, and Food Security 427
Roy E. Martin

Transportation 427

Delivery equipment design and construction 428

Preloading controls 428

Loading controls 429

Unloading controls 429

Special concerns: Railcars 430

Special concerns: Air shipping 432

Fish and seafood acceptance by air carriers 435

Factors involved in packaging design 436

Transportation from packing house to airport 437

Air waybill 437

Air waybill requirements for dry ice 437

Distributors that take ownership of product 438

Organization and programs 438

Checkpoints and additional guides 438

Warehousing 440

Buildings and grounds 440

Fixtures and equipment 441

Sanitary facilities 441

Sanitary operations 442

Procedures and controls 443

Personnel 444

Temperature control and handling practices 445

Food security guidelines 447

Supervision 448

Recall strategy 448

Evaluation program 448

Personnel 448

Facility 450

Operations 451

Security of water and utilities 452

Security of ventilation system (where applicable) 452

Mail/packages 453

Access to computer systems 453

Further reading 453

Index 455

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Linda Ankenman Granata is a Research Associate at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia.

George J. Flick, Jr. is University Distinguished Professor at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia.

Roy E. Martin was formerly Senior Vice President (Science and Technology) at the National Fisheries Institute. He is currently a Seafood Industry Consultant based in Spring Hill, Florida.

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“The authors present valuable technical information and insight for the handling and processing of commercially important species of finfish and shellfish while making the complex understandable. For a technical work, it is an enjoyable read. Every seafood technology or marketing student or professional should add this volume to his or her bookshelves.”  (Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 25 December 2013)

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