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Cereals and Pulses: Nutraceutical Properties and Health Benefits

Liangli L. Yu (Editor), Rong Tsao (Editor), Fereidoon Shahidi (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-8138-1839-9
328 pages
May 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Cereals and Pulses: Nutraceutical Properties and Health Benefits (0813818397) cover image
Cereal and pulse crops are staple foods that provide essential nutrients to many populations of the world. Traditionally, whole grains were consumed but most current foods are derived from refined fractions of cereal and pulse crops. Consumption of processed or refined products may reduce the health benefits of food. In wheat-based processed foods, for example, the removed 40% of the grain (mainly the bran and the germ of the wheat grain) contains the majority of the health beneficial components. These components, particularly non-essential phytochemicals such as carotenoids, polyphenols, phytosterols/ stanols, and dietary fibers, have been shown to reduce the risk of major chronic diseases of humans, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and Parkinson’s disease.

Such bioactives are therefore good candidates for ingredients of nutraceuticals and functional foods. There are many factors that can affect the bioactive content of cereal and pulse-based food ingredients, including genetics, growing and storage conditions, post-harvest treatments, food formulation and processing. All of these factors ultimately affect human health and wellness. Bioavailability is also important for these compounds for exerting their protective roles.

Cereals and Pulses: Nutraceutical Properties and Health Benefits provides a summary of current research findings related to phytochemical composition and properties of cereal and pulse crops. The nutraceutical properties of each major cereal and pulse are discussed. Coverage of cereals and pulse crops includes barley, oats, rice, rye, corn, adlay, wheat, buckwheat, psyllium, sorghum, millet, common beans, field peas, faba beans, chickpea, lentil and soybeans. Chapters for each crop discuss methods to improve crop utilization, nutraceutical components and properties, bioactive compositions, antioxidant properties, beneficial health effects, disease prevention activities, and areas for future research. Also included are two chapters that examine the beneficial health properties of dietary fibers and antioxidants. Edited and written by an international team of respected researchers, this book is a reference guide for scientists working in food ingredients, food product research and development, functional foods and nutraceuticals, crop breeding and genetics, human nutrition, post-harvest treatment and processing of cereal grains and pulses. It will enable them to effect value-added food innovation for health promotion and disease risk reduction.

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Contributors ix

1 Cereals and pulses – an overview 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Chemistry and nutraceutical compositions 2

1.3 Potential health beneficial effects 2

References 5

2 Effects of barley consumption on cardiovascular and diabetic risk 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Barley β-glucan and risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and colon carcinogenesis 7

2.3 Other nutraceutical components and properties in barley 11

2.4 Potential of hulless barley in health promotion and disease prevention 15

2.5 Future studies 15

References 16

3 Nutraceutical properties and health benefits of oats 21

3.1 Introduction 21

3.2 Oat grain composition 22

3.3 The chemical and physical property of oat β-glucan 23

3.4 Effects of processing on oat β-glucan 25

3.5 Oat and health 26

3.6 Conclusions 31

References 31

4 Nutraceutical properties and health benefits of rice 37

4.1 Introduction 37

4.2 Rice grain structure and nutritional composition distribution 38

4.3 Nutrient compositions and their health benefits 40

4.4 Biofortification of nutrients in rice grain to improve its health benefits 53

4.5 Health benefits of rice bran 54

4.6 Health benefits of whole rice grain consumption 55

4.7 Future trends 57

References 57

5 Hypolipedemic effects of rice bran oil 65

5.1 Introduction 65

5.2 Chemical composition of rice bran oil (RBO) 65

5.3 Hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil 66

5.4 Other beneficial effects of rice bran oil 68

5.5 Future studies 69

References 70

6 Phenolic phytochemicals from rye ( Secale Cereale L .) 71

6.1 Introduction 71

6.2 Three classes of the phenolic compounds 72

6.3 Extraction methodology 72

6.4 Analysis methods 80

6.5 Bioactivity 81

6.6 Health beneficial effects of rye intake 82

6.7 Summary 82

References 82

7 Bioactive compounds in corn 85

7.1 Introduction 85

7.2 Phytochemicals in corn and their health benefits 85

7.3 Corn resistant starch and bioactivities 96

7.4 Future studies 97

References 98

8 Nutraceutical and health properties of adlay 105

8.1 Introduction 105

8.2 Health components of adlay 105

8.3 Potential health beneficial properties 107

8.4 Summary 111

References 111

9 Antioxidant and health promoting properties of wheat ( Triticum spp .) 113

9.1 Introduction 113

9.2 Evidence of wheat’s health promoting properties 113

9.3 The antioxidant contents of wheat 114

9.4 Reported antioxidant and other health promoting properties of wheat 117

9.5 Bioavailability of phenolic acids in wheat 119

9.6 Use of post-harvest treatments to improve the bioaccessabilty of antioxidant in wheat-based ingredients 120

9.7 Effects of processing on antioxidants in wheat-based food systems 123

References 126

10 Buckwheat: A novel pseudocereal 131

10.1 Introduction of buckwheat 131

10.2 Nutritional composition of buckwheat 133

10.3 Unique health components of buckwheat 136

10.4 Allergens in buckwheat 144

10.5 Research trends of buckwheat nutritional and functional properties 145

References 146

11 Nutraceutical and health properties of psyllium 149

11.1 Introduction 149

11.2 Health beneficial effects of psyllium 150

11.3 Potential in controlled delivery of bioactives 158

11.4 Possible adverse effects 159

References 160

12 Nutraceutical and health properties of sorghum and millet 165

12.1 Introduction 165

12.2 Phytochemicals in sorghum and millet grains and fractions 167

12.3 Antioxidant properties of sorghum and millet grain and components 173

12.4 Potential beneficial effects of sorghum and millet consumption in human health 176

12.5 Perspectives 182

References 182

13 Nutraceutical and health properties of common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) 187

13.1 Introduction 187

13.2 Health beneficial effects of Phaseolus vulgaris 187

13.3 Possible adverse effects 194

13.4 Conclusion 194

References 194

14 Health benefits and bioactive compounds in field peas, faba beans, and chickpeas 199

14.1 Introduction 199

14.2 Phenolic compounds in field peas, chickpeas, and faba beans 200

14.3 Health benefits of compounds in field peas, chickpeas, and faba beans 202

14.4 Antinutritional factors in peas, chickpeas, and faba beans 209

14.5 Bioactive peptides 210

References 212

15 Bioactives and health benefits of lentils (Lens culinaris L.) 217

15.1 Introduction 217

15.2 Epidemiology: pulses and chronic diseases 217

15.3 Health effects of pulse carbohydrates 221

15.4 Health promoting vitamins and minerals in lentils 222

15.5 Health promoting phenolic compounds in lentils 222

References 225

16 Soy isoflavones and bone health 229

16.1 Introduction 229

16.2 Biosynthesis and composition of isoflavones in soybeans 230

16.3 Separation, characterization, and analysis of isoflavones 231

16.4 Soy isoflavones and bone health 232

16.5 Summary 237

References 238

17 Effects of dietary soy on the prevention of cardiovascular disease 243

17.1 Introduction 243

17.2 Soy foods and serum cholesterol 243

17.3 Soy and inhibition of LDL oxidation 249

17.4 Soy and inflammation 252

17.5 Soy and hypertension 252

17.6 Soy and endothelial function 253

17.7 Conclusions 253

References 254

18 Dietary fiber and human health 261

18.1 Introduction 261

18.2 Dietary fiber and metabolic syndrome 261

18.3 Dietary fiber and cancer 264

18.4 Dietary fiber and cardiovascular diseases 267

18.5 Potential undesirable effects 268

18.6 Summary 269

References 269

19 Antioxidants and human health 273

19.1 Introduction 273

19.2 Anti-inflammatory capacity of antioxidants 274

19.3 Antioxidants and metabolic syndrome 278

19.4 Antioxidants and cancer 285

19.5 Antioxidants and cardiovascular diseases 290

19.6 Summary and conclusions 295

References 295

Index 309

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Professor Liangli (Lucy) Yu, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, USA

Dr Rong Tsao, Guelph Food Research Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Professor Fereidoon Shahidi, Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada

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“Recommended.  Graduate students, researchers/faculty, and professionals/practitioners.”  (Choice, 1 December 2012)

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