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Wheat: Science and Trade

Brett F. Carver (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-8138-1923-5
616 pages
September 2009, Wiley-Blackwell
Wheat: Science and Trade (0813819237) cover image
Wheat: Science and Trade is an up-to-date, comprehensive reference work designed to expand the current body of knowledge on this staple crop, incorporating new information made available by genetic advances, improvements in the understanding of wheat's biology, and changes in the wheat trade industry. Covering phylogeny and ontogeny, manipulation of the environment and optimal management, genetic improvement, and utilization and commercialization, the book focuses on the most economically significant diseases and impacts
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Foreword.

Preface.

Acknowledgements.

Contributors.

Section I: Making of a Wheat Plant.

1 Wheat evolution, domestication, and improvement.

Summary.

Introduction.

Wheat domestication and human civilization.

Wheat cultivation.

Origin, domestication, and evolution of wheat.

Polyploidy, a form of plant evolution.

Origin of the A genome.

Origin of the B genome.

Emmer and durum wheat.

Origin of Triticum turgidum.

Origin of Triticum dicoccoides (wild emmer).

Origin of hexaploid wheat.

Genome evolution and modification.

Mechanisms for chromosome evolution.

Chromosomal rearrangements and repetitive DNA.

Heterochromatin.

Repetitive DNA.

Repatterning of rDNA arrays in the wheat genome.

Repetitive DNA and mobile elements as perpetual generators of diversity and evolution.

The potential of wild emmer in wheat improvement.

Concluding remarks on the process of wheat evolution.

Future perspectives.

References.

2 Development of the wheat plant.

Summary.

Introduction.

Scales of plant development.

Canopies.

Shoots or tillers.

Phytomers.

Morphological naming schemes.

Leaves.

Tillers.

Inflorescence parts.

Roots.

Shoot development.

Phenology.

Shoot apex.

Integrating phenology, the shoot apex, and phytomers.

Environmental factors influencing shoot development.

Temperature.

Nontemperature environmental factors.

Digital technologies for wheat development.

Linking molecular biology and functional genomics to development.

Future perspectives.

References.

3 The flowering pathway in wheat.

Summary.

Overview of flowering induction in wheat.

Genetic locations of flowering time genes.

Genetic loci regulating vernalization response.

VRN-1 on the long arm of homoeologous chromosomes 5.

VRN-Am2 on chromosome 5Am in a genomic region translocated from chromosome 4Am.

VRN-B3 on the short arm of chromosome 7B.

Other vernalization genes in wheat.

Genetic loci regulating photoperiod sensitivity.

Genetic loci regulating plant development processes.

Quantitative trait loci affecting flowering time.

Epistatic interactions.

Positional cloning of flowering time genes in wheat.

VRN-Am1, an orthologue of AP1, promotes flowering.

VRN-Am2, a cct-domain-containing gene, represses flowering.

VRN-B3, an orthologue of FT, promotes flowering.

Successes in positional cloning of vernalization genes.

Orthologues of other known flowering time genes.

Concomitant transcriptional profiles of flowering time genes.

Comparative studies on flowering pathways in plants.

Flowering pathways in model species.

A model for the wheat flowering pathway.

Future perspectives.

References.

Section II: Making of a Wheat Crop.

4 Systems-based wheat management strategies.

Summary.

Introduction.

Advances in wheat management.

Yield building versus yield protecting factors.

Intensive wheat management.

Matching cultivar to environment.

Fertility and pest management.

Timeliness and precision.

Previous crop management.

Limitations of the system.

Dual-purpose wheat.

Description of the system and area of adaptation.

Characterizing a suitable dual-purpose cultivar.

Fertility management.

Grazing termination and impact on grain yield.

No-till wheat production.

Why no-till has increased.

Long-term experiments.

Future perspectives.

References.

5 Diseases which challenge global wheat production—the wheat rusts.

Summary.

Introduction.

Wheat leaf rust.

Distribution and epidemiology.

Origin and historical importance.

Effects on grain and flour quality.

Taxonomy, life cycle, and host range.

Genetic variation in P. triticina.

Virulence variation.

Molecular variation.

Leaf rust resistance in wheat.

Race-specific resistance.

Durable leaf rust resistance in wheat.

Association with other disease resistance genes.

Leaf rust resistance in durum wheat.

Wheat stripe rust.

Distribution and epidemiology.

Origin and historical importance.

Taxonomy, life cycle, and host range.

Genetic variation in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

Virulence variation.

Molecular variation.

Stripe rust resistance in wheat.

Race-specific resistance.

High-temperature adult-plant resistance.

Slow-rusting resistance.

Wheat stem rust.

Distribution and epidemiology.

Origin and historical importance

Taxonomy, life cycle, and host range.

Genetic variation in Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici.

Stem rust resistance in wheat.

Future perspectives.

References.

6 Diseases which challenge global wheat production—root, crown, and culm rots.

Summary.

Introduction.

Common root rot.

Symptoms and epidemiology.

Causal organism.

Disease management.

Fusarium crown rot.

Symptoms and epidemiology.

Causal organisms.

Disease management.

Pythium root rot.

Symptoms and epidemiology.

Causal organisms.

Disease management.

Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch.

Symptoms and epidemiology.

Causal organisms.

Disease management.

Take-all.

Symptoms and epidemiology.

Causal organism.

Disease management.

Cephalosporium stripe.

Symptoms and epidemiology.

Causal organism.

Disease management.

Eyespot.

Symptoms and epidemiology.

Causal organisms.

Disease management.

Future perspectives.

References.

7 Diseases which challenge global wheat production—powdery mildew and leaf and head blights.

Summary.

Introduction. 

Powdery mildew.

Taxonomy and life history.

Identification and symptomology.

Distribution and losses.

Pathogen variability.

Stagonospora nodorum blotch.

Taxonomy and life history.

Identification and symptomology.

Distribution and losses.

Pathogen variability.

Septoria tritici blotch.

Taxonomy and life history.

Identification and symptomology.

Distribution and losses.

Pathogen variability.

Tan spot.

Taxonomy and life history.

Identification and symptomology.

Distribution and losses.

Pathogen variability.

Fusarium head blight.

Taxonomy and life history.

Identification and symptomology.

Distribution and losses.

Pathogen variability.

Management of residue-borne diseases.

Crop diversity.

Host-plant resistance.

Powdery mildew.

Stagonospora nodorum blotch.

Septoria tritici blotch.

Tan spot.

Fusarium head blight.

Future perspectives.

References.

8 Nematodes which challenge global wheat production.

Summary.

Introduction.

Cereal cyst nematode.

Symptoms and epidemiology.

Causal organisms.

Management.

Root-lesion nematode.

Symptoms and epidemiology.

Causal organisms.

Management.

Future perspectives.

References.

9 Insects which challenge global wheat production.

Summary.

Hessian fly.

Economic impact and distribution.

Biology, plant damage, and control methods.

Utilization of host-plant resistance.

Bird cherry–oat aphid.

Biology, plant damage, and control methods.

Utilization of host-plant resistance.

Greenbug.

Economic impact and distribution.

Biology, plant damage, and control methods.

Utilization of host-plant resistance.

Russian wheat aphid.

Economic impact and distribution.

Biology, plant damage, and control methods.

Utilization of host-plant resistance.

Future perspectives.

References.

10 Temporally and spatially dependent nitrogen management for diverse.

environments.

Summary.

Introduction.

Nitrogen-use efficiency as a driver of new technology.

Case study: What defines diverse environments.

Is nitrogen needed.

Importance of spatial variability on N requirement.

Importance of temporal and spatial variability combined.

Nutrient deficiencies other than N.

Prediction of yield potential.

Prediction of N responsiveness independent of yield potential.

Midseason N applications can result in maximum yields.

Determination of midseason N rate.

“Ramp” method of determining midseason N rate.

Future perspectives.

References.

11 Grain yield improvement in water-limited environments.

Summary.

Introduction.

Climate and crop growth.

Water-limited yield potential.

Characterizing target environments.

Breeding for improved performance under drought.

Yield potential and genetic gain in water-limited environments.

Physiological breeding.

Breeding tools.

Indirect selection via correlated traits.

High-throughput phenotyping.

Quantitative trait loci.

Functional genomics and beyond.

Defining the breeding target.

Increasing water uptake.

Stem carbohydrate production.

Tiller production.

Early leaf area development.

Transpiration efficiency.

Maintenance of leaf area.

Future perspectives.

References.

12 Cutting down on weeds to cut a cleaner wheat crop.

Summary.

Impact of weeds on wheat.

Competition.

Nutrients.

Light (shading).

Water.

Wheat grain yield.

Wheat grain quality and marketability.

Controlling weeds with integrated weed management systems.

Preventative control.

Cultural control.

Mechanical control by tillage.

Chemical control.

Biological control.

Weed spatial variation and precision farming.

Putting it all together: Examples of effective systems.

Winter wheat in North America: Winter wheat–summer crop–fallow.

Spring wheat in North America.

Spring wheat in Australia.

Future perspectives.

References.

Section III: Making of a Wheat Cultivar.

13 Wheat breeding: Procedures and strategies.

Summary.

Brief history of wheat breeding.

The context of applied wheat breeding.

Accessing genetic resources.

Methods to generate genetic variation.

Hybridization.

Mutations.

Variation from in vitro tissue culture.

Transgenic wheat and its impact on wheat breeding.

Methods to assess genetic variation.

Methods of selecting while inbreeding to develop a cultivar.

Pedigree selection.

Bulk selection.

Single-seed descent.

Doubled haploid breeding.

Backcrossing.

Major issues all wheat breeders face.

Early- vs late-generation selection.

Impact of molecular markers on wheat breeding.

The practice of wheat breeding.

Extension of the theory.

Cultivar release.

Understanding the phenotype.

Breeding hybrid wheat.

Importance of technology.

Future perspectives.

Webliography.

References.

14 State of qtl detection and marker-assisted selection in wheat improvement.

Summary.

Introduction.

Breeding by visual selection.

Complex traits and gene pyramiding.

Genetic mapping.

Early progress and developments.

Genetic maps.

Consensus map.

Progress in marker technology.

Current progress in qtl analysis and deployment of mas.

Single-gene traits and complex traits.

Recurrent selection.

Replicated field analysis.

Haplotype analysis.

Gene cloning and perfect markers.

Complex traits.

Future developments and uses of qtl analysis and mapping.

Association mapping.

Gene expression analysis.

Future perspectives.

References.

15 Genome organization and comparative genomics.

Summary.

Mapping.

Genetic mapping.

Deletion mapping.

Comparative genetics.

Comparative mapping.

Triticeae tribe.

Pooideae subfamily.

Poaceae family.

Colinearity at the dna sequence level.

Map-based cloning.

Disease resistance genes.

Lr21.

Lr10.

Lr1.

Pm3.

Genes involved in adaptation.

Vrn-1, vrn-2, and vrn-3.

Q.

Ph1.

Physical mapping in hexaploid wheat.

Constructing subgenomic bac resources.

Advantages of subgenomic bac resources.

Chromosome-based approach offers more than subgenomic bac libraries.

Physical map of chromosome 3B—a case study.

Organization and evolution of the wheat genome.

Organization of genes and repeats.

Evolution of the wheat genome.

Toward sequencing the wheat genome.

Sanger sequencing.

Hierarchical genome sequencing.

Whole-genome shotgun sequencing.

Sequencing of gene-rich bac clones.

Sequencing the gene space using gene-enrichment methodologies.

New-generation sequencing technologies.

Future perspectives.

References.

16 Synthetic wheat—an emerging genetic resource.

Summary.

Introduction.

Primary synthetic hexaploid wheat.

New genetic variability for tolerance to biotic stress.

Rust diseases.

Septoria diseases and tan spot.

Karnal bunt.

Fusarium and powdery mildew diseases.

Insect pests.

Soilborne nematodes.

New genetic variability for tolerance to abiotic stress.

Drought.

Salinity and waterlogging.

Micronutrient imbalance.

Temperature stress.

Preharvest sprouting.

Grain quality attributes.

Strategies for using primary synthetics in applied wheat breeding.

Performance of derived synthetics.

Resistance to biotic stress.

Tolerance to abiotic stress.

Future perspectives.

References.

17 Success in wheat improvement.

Summary.

World yield gains.

Genetic component of grain yield improvement.

Empirical estimation of genetic gain.

Grain yield.

Yield components.

Wheat yield gains in light of other crops.

Future perspectives.

References.

18 Transgenic applications in wheat improvement.

Summary.

Introduction.

Wheat transformation: Methods and results.

Targets for wheat transformation.

Dna delivery methods and integration.

Identification of transformants.

Regeneration of fertile plants.

Efficiency of wheat transformation.

Applications of wheat transformation.

Promoters.

Applications for functional genomics.

Applications to understand or modify seed properties.

Applications to improve pathogen and pest resistance.

Applications to improve tolerance of abiotic stress.

Other applications.

Impacts on production agriculture.

Limitations of wheat transformation technology.

Genotype.

Structures of integrated transgenes.

Integration location.

Inheritance anomalies.

Transgene expression levels and stability.

Unintended effects of transformation, transgene insertion, or expression.

Practical considerations.

Future perspectives.

References.

Section IV: Making of a Wheat Industry.

19 Overview of wheat classification and trade.

Summary.

Introduction.

World production.

Global wheat trade.

Fundamental wheat classification criteria.

US system of wheat classification.

Grade factors.

Nongrade factors.

Moisture content.

Protein content.

Wheat ash content.

Kernel weight.

Grain hardness.

Falling number.

Starch viscosity.

Wet gluten content.

Dough performance.

Product performance.

Canadian system of classification and marketing.

Australian system of classification and marketing.

Purchasing decision making.

Grain exchanges.

Open outcry system.

Farmer to elevator.

Elevator to world.

Future perspectives.

References.

20 Passing the test on wheat end-use quality.

Summary.

Introduction.

Characteristics of major wheat-based foods.

Essential bread requirements.

Straight-dough processes.

Sponge and dough and other pre-ferment processes.

High-volume bread types.

Steamed breads.

Low-volume bread types.

Two-layered bread.

Single-layered bread.

Asian noodles.

Soft-bite noodles.

Hard-bite noodles.

Soft wheat products.

Cookies and crackers.

Cakes and batters.

Durum pasta.

Compositional analysis and grain testing.

Moisture.

Protein content.

Kernel texture.

Grain soundness and a-amylase.

Polyphenol oxidase.

Test milling.

Grain and flour ash.

Flour color.

Speckiness.

Starch and flour properties.

Total starch content.

Starch damage.

Starch and flour paste viscosity and swelling power.

Solvent retention capacity.

Dough testing and prediction of dough properties.

Sds sedimentation volume.

Recording dough mixers.

Measuring extensional properties of developed doughs.

Uniaxial extension.

Biaxial extension.

Other dough rheology tests.

End-product testing.

Emerging opportunities.

Spectroscopy.

Cultivar identification.

Future perpectives.

References.

21 The biochemical and molecular basis of wheat quality 495

Summary.

Introduction.

Diversity of wheat utilization.

The range of uses of wheat—western foods.

The range of uses of wheat—“exotic” foods.

Industrial uses of wheat.

Processing specifications for wheat utilization.

Pan bread.

Flat bread.

Yellow alkaline noodles.

White salted noodles.

Cookies (biscuits) and cakes.

Chinese steamed bread.

Starch-gluten manufacture.

Pasta.

Protein composition and wheat quality.

Dough quality and functional proteins.

Dough quality and polypeptide composition.

Grain hardness.

Starch pasting properties.

Protein composition and genotype identification.

Application of principles: Defects explained.

Lipid composition and wheat quality.

Lipid composition and distribution.

Interaction with gluten proteins.

The role of flour lipids in baking.

Dough structure and gas cell stabilization.

Starch composition and wheat quality.

Amylose content.

Starch granules.

Gelatinization temperature.

Viscosity of starch.

Swelling power.

Nonstarch polysaccharide composition and wheat quality.

Flour color and wheat quality.

Enzymes and wheat quality.

Lipase and lipoxygenase.

Polyphenol oxidase.

Peroxidase.

Enzymes in sprouted or lma-affected grain.

Proteases.

Selection for wheat quality in breeding.

Future perspectives.

References.

22 New uses for wheat and modified wheat products.

Summary.

Introduction.

White wheat.

White wheat breeding.

Hard white wheat—consumer markets.

Low polyphenol oxidase wheat.

Altered starch.

Altered starch breeding.

Waxy (amylose-free) wheat.

High-amylose wheat.

Sweet wheat.

Altered starch characteristics.

Unique waxy wheat flour properties.

Waxy wheat starch structure and properties.

High-amylose wheat.

Wheat phytochemicals.

Phenolics.

Carotenoids.

Vitamin E.

Lignans.

b-Glucan.

Phytosterols.

Dietary fiber, inulin, and resistant starch.

Betaine.

Industrial wheat.

Breeding wheat for nonfood uses.

Wheat conversion to ethanol.

New market for wheat in ethanol industry.

Soft and waxy wheat for ethanol production.

Feedstock criteria for ethanol production.

Evaluation techniques for feedstock and co-product quality.

Recent advances in technology.

Fermentation technology.

Processing technology.

Future perspectives.

References.

23 US wheat marketing system and price discovery.

Summary.

Introduction.

Marketing system.

Price discovery and determination.

Commodity futures exchanges.

Hedges.

Cash price relationships.

Physical flow of wheat.

Cash prices.

Quality discounts and premiums.

Future perspectives.

Reference.

Index.

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Brett F. Carver is Regents Professor and Wheat Genetics Chair in Agriculture at Oklahoma State University, whose research in wheat breeding and genetics spans 25 years.
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  • Provides an up-to-date authoritative resource on a globally consumed and produced crop
  • Focuses on the most economically significant diseases and impacts
  • Includes sections on the wheat plant, crop, cultivar, and industry
  • Presents an up-to-date wheat reference
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    "The book is an authoritative source of up-to date information on almost all technical aspects of wheat." (Journal of Agricultural Science, December 2010)

    "An impressive achievement.... It is probably the best general text on wheat that is currently available, with the level of coverage and an accessible style making it suitable as a text for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as a valuable source of information for practising wheat scientists." (Journal of Cereal Science, December 2009)

    "The signposting of sections and subjects is excellent, enabling the reader to find areas of interest quickly and easily. … The book is a sound reference source for academics, students, breeders and professionals in the wheat industry" (Experimental Agriculture, December 2009)

    "A reference on all aspects of the wheat plant, crop, cultivar, and industry." (Book News, December 2009)

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