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Anaerobic Biotechnology for Bioenergy Production: Principles and Applications

ISBN: 978-0-8138-2346-1
320 pages
October 2008, Wiley-Blackwell
Anaerobic Biotechnology for Bioenergy Production: Principles and Applications (0813823463) cover image
Anaerobic Biotechnology for Bioenergy Production: Principles and Applications provides the reader with basic principles of anaerobic processes alongside practical uses of anaerobic biotechnology. Anaerobic biotechnology is a cost-effective and sustainable means of treating waste and wastewaters that couples treatment processes with the reclamation of useful by-products and renewable biofuels. This book will be a valuable reference to any professional currently considering or working with anaerobic biotechnology options.
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CONTRIBUTORS, xi

PREFACE, xiii

1 OVERVIEW OF ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY, 1
Samir Kumar Khanal

1.1 Anaerobic Biotechnology and Bioenergy Recovery, 1

1.2 Historical Development, 3

1.3 Importance of Anaerobic Biotechnology in Overall Waste Treatment, 5

1.4 Definition and Principle of Anaerobic Processes, 6

1.5 Important Considerations in Anaerobic Biotechnology, 8

1.6 Merits of Anaerobic Biotechnology, 15

1.7 Limitations of Anaerobic Process, 22

References, 25

2 MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY, 29
Samir Kumar Khanal

2.1 Background, 29

2.2 Organics Conversion in Anaerobic Systems, 29

2.3 Process Microbiology, 32

References, 41

3 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, 43
Samir Kumar Khanal

3.1 Background, 43

3.2 Temperature, 43

3.3 Operating pH and Alkalinity, 47

3.4 Nutrients, 55

3.5 Toxic Materials, 56

3.6 Redox Potential or Oxidation–Reduction Potential, 59

References, 61

4 KINETICS AND MODELING IN ANAEROBIC PROCESSES, 65
Keshab Raj Sharma

4.1 Background, 65

4.2 Basic Elements, 66

4.3 Stepwise Approach to Modeling, 69

4.4 Modeling of pH Change, 79

4.5 Modeling of Energy Generation, 87

References, 92

5 ANAEROBIC REACTOR CONFIGURATIONS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION, 93
Samir Kumar Khanal

5.1 Background, 93

5.2 Strategies for Decoupling HRT and SRT, 93

5.3 Classification of Anaerobic Bioreactors, 94

5.4 Membrane Technology for Syngas Fermentation to Ethanol, 112

References, 114

6 MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES IN ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATION IN BIOENERGY GENERATION, 115
Srisuda Dhamwichukorn

6.1 Background, 115

6.2 Molecular Techniques in Anaerobic Biotechnology, 115

6.3 Fundamentals of Molecular Techniques, 116

6.4 Phylogenetic Analysis, 117

6.5 Molecular Techniques for Microbial Community Structure Analysis: DNA Fingerprinting, Clone Library, and Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization, 118

6.6 Molecular Techniques for Functional Analysis, 121

6.7 Nucleic Acid Extraction of Anaerobic Cells/Isolates and Sludge, 123

6.8 Molecular Techniques for Structure and Function Analysis, 123

6.9 Postgenomic Approaches for Bioenergy Research, 128

References, 130

7 BIOENERGY RECOVERY FROM SULFATE-RICH WASTE STREAMS AND STRATEGIES FOR SULFIDE REMOVAL, 133
Samir Kumar Khanal

7.1 Background, 133

7.2 Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, 133

7.3 High-Strength Sulfate-Rich Wastewater, 135

7.4 Methane Recovery from High-Strength Sulfate-Laden Wastewater, 135

7.5 Important Considerations in Treatment and Methane Recovery from High-Strength Sulfate-Laden Wastewater, 137

7.6 Interactions between MPB and SRB, 143

7.7 Sulfide Removal, 149

References, 157

8 BIOENERGY GENERATION FROM RESIDUES OF BIOFUEL INDUSTRIES, 161
Samir Kumar Khanal

8.1 Background, 161

8.2 Bioethanol Feedstocks, 162

8.3 Biodiesel Feedstocks, 163

8.4 Ethanol Production, 163

8.5 Thin Stillage Characterization, 171

8.6 Cassava-Based Ethanol Production, 183

8.7 Cellulose-Based Ethanol Production, 185

8.8 Bioenergy Recovery from Crude Glycerin, 186

References, 187

9 BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION: FUNDAMENTALS, CHALLENGES, AND OPERATION STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCED YIELD, 189
Samir Kumar Khanal

9.1 Background, 189

9.2 Biological Hydrogen Production, 190

9.3 Microbiology of Dark Fermentation, 191

9.4 Hydrogen Production Pathway through Dark Fermentation, 192

9.5 Suppression of Hydrogen Consumers, 196

9.6 Hydrogen Yield, 199

9.7 Important Considerations in Biohydrogen Production, 200

9.8 Limitations of Dark Fermentation and Potential Remedial Options, 210

9.9 Technoeconomic Analysis of Hydrogen Fermentation, 213

References, 215

10 MICROBIAL FUEL CELL: NOVEL ANAEROBIC BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR ENERGY GENERATION FROM WASTEWATER, 221
Hong Liu

10.1 Background, 221

10.2 How Does a Microbial Fuel Cell Work?, 222

10.3 Stoichiometry and Energetics, 223

10.4 Electrochemically Active Microbes and Electron Transfer Mechanisms, 225

10.5 Evaluation of MFC Performance, 228

10.6 MFC Designs and Electrode Materials, 231

10.7 Operational Factors Affecting MFC Performance, 239

10.8 Opportunities and Challenges for MFCs in Wastewater

Treatment, 242

References, 243

11 PRETREATMENT OF HIGH-SOLIDS WASTES/RESIDUES TO ENHANCE BIOENERGY RECOVERY, 247
Santha Harikishan

11.1 Background, 247

11.2 Efficiency of Sludge Pretreatment, 248

11.3 Ultrasound Pretreatment, 250

11.4 Chemical and Physical Pretreatment, 257

11.5 Thermal Hydrolysis, 261

11.6 Impact of Improved Digestibility on Overall Process

Economics, 264

References, 264

12 BIOGAS PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION AS AN ENERGY SOURCE, 267
Santha Harikishan

12.1 Background, 267

12.2 Biogas Production, 267

12.3 Factors Affecting Digester Gas Production, 269

12.4 Biogas Composition, 270

12.5 Biogas Impurities, 272

12.6 Biogas Cleaning for Effective Utilization, 274

12.7 Biogas Utilization, 279

12.8 Future of Biogas as a Renewable Resource, 290

References, 291

INDEX, 293

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Samir Kumar Khanal, PhD, P.E. is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering at the University of Hawaii-Manoa.
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  • Coverage of basic Anaerobic Biotechnology principles
  • Practical applications of principles and processes
  • Thorough coverage of cost-effective and sustainable means of treating waste water and resource reclamation
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