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Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Degenerative Disease Prevention

ISBN: 978-0-8138-2453-6
424 pages
November 2011, Wiley-Blackwell
Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Degenerative Disease Prevention (0813824532) cover image
Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Degenerative Disease Prevention is a compilation of different segments of functional foods and nutraceuticals focusing on their mechanism of action in the human body leading to disease prevention. Numerous chapters deal with different functional foods in terms of their efficacy, highlighting the mechanism of action of their ingredients. The book focuses on the biochemistry and molecular biology of the disease prevention process rather than simply compiling the benefits of functional foods and nutraceuticals.

Aimed primarily at an audience comprised of researchers, industry professionals, food scientists, medical professionals and graduate level students, Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Degenerative Disease Prevention offers a mechanism-based interpretation for the effect of nutraceuticals within the human body. Ultimately, the discussion of the biological effects of a variety of functional foods will provide a wholesome approach to the maintenance of health through judicious choice of functional foods.

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Contributors xv

Preface xvii

About the Editors xix

1 Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, and Disease Prevention: A Window to the Future of Health Promotion 3
Gopinadhan Paliyath and Kalidas Shetty

1.1 Chronic Degenerative Diseases in Modern Society: Implications on Life Quality, Productivity, Economic Burden 3

1.1.1 Diet and lifestyle changes: the missing foods 3

1.1.2 Social and economic burden of chronic degenerative diseases 4

1.2 Health Regulatory Properties of Foods: “Prevention Is Better Than Cure” 5

1.2.1 Fruit and vegetable consumption and disease prevention 6

References 8

2 Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals 11
Chung-Ja C. Jackson and Gopinadhan Paliyath

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals 12

2.2.1 Effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals on major chronic diseases 16

2.3 Sources and Biological Effects of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in Nature 19

2.3.1 Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) 20

2.3.2 Phytoestrogens 21

2.3.3 Tomatoes 21

2.3.4 Garlic (Allium sativum) 21

2.3.5 Cruciferous vegetables 22

2.3.6 Citrus fruits 22

2.3.7 Cranberry 23

2.3.8 Tea 23

2.3.9 Wine and grapes 24

2.3.10 Chocolate 24

2.3.11 Fish 25

2.3.12 Dairy products 25

2.3.13 Carbohydrates 26

2.3.14 Meat 26

2.3.15 Vitamins 26

2.3.16 Minerals 27

2.4 Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals: Health Claims and Benefits 27

2.4.1 Oats 27

2.4.2 Psyllium 27

2.4.3 Soybeans 28

2.4.4 Phytosterols 29

2.4.5 Fiber 29

2.4.6 D-Tagatose 29

2.5 Qualifi ed Health Claims 29

2.5.1 Selenium and cancer 29

2.5.2 Antioxidant vitamins and cancer 30

2.5.3 Nuts (e.g., walnuts) and heart disease 30

2.5.4 Omega-3 fatty acids and CHD 30

2.5.5 Phosphatidylserine/Phosphatidylcholine and cognitive dysfunction and dementia 30

2.5.6 Folic acid and neural tube birth defects 30

2.6 Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals: Safety Issues 30

2.6.1 Echinacea 31

2.6.2 Ephedra (also called “ma huang, herbal ecstasy, or mahuanggen”) 31

2.6.3 Feverfew 31

2.6.4 Garlic 31

2.6.5 Ginger 32

2.6.6 Gingko biloba 32

2.6.7 Ginseng 32

2.6.8 Kava kava products 32

2.6.9 St. John’s Wort 32

2.7 Regulation of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals 33

2.8 Public Education and Dietary Guidance 35

2.9 Concluding Remarks 36

References 37

3 Nutritional Genomics: Fundamental Role of Diet in Chronic Disease Prevention and Control 45
Amy J. Tucker, Branden Deschambault, and Marica Bakovic

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Nutrigenetics 46

3.2.1 Gene polymorphisms 46

3.2.2 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 47

3.2.3 Nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) 47

3.2.4 Regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs) 48

3.2.5 Splice site single nucleotide polymorphisms (ssSNPs) 48

3.2.6 Trans-Acting rSNPs 48

3.3 Complexities of chronic disease research in nutrigenetics 49

3.4 Chronic Disease and Rare SNPs 50

3.4.1 Copy number variants 50

3.5 CVD and Nutrigenetics 51

3.6 Nutrigenetics and Cancer 51

3.7 Summary of Nutrigenetic Research Potential 51

3.8 Nutriepigenetics 52

3.8.1 Role of the epigenome 52

3.8.2 Cause of epimutations 52

3.9 Epimutations in Chronic Disease 53

3.9.1 Epimutations and macronutrients/micronutrients 53

3.9.2 Epimutations and phytochemicals 54

3.10 Summary of Epigenetic Research Potential 54

3.11 Nutrigenomics 54

3.11.1 Genomic impact of diet 55

3.11.2 Carbohydrates and gene interactions 55

3.12.3 Cholesterol and gene interactions 56

3.11.4 FAs, lipids, and gene interactions 58

3.11.5 Lipids and APOE 59

3.11.6 Diet and APOE 60

3.11.7 Lipids and hepatic lipase (HL) 60

3.11.8 Diet and LIPC 61

3.11.9 Interaction between APOE and HL 61

3.12 Vitamin A and Gene Interactions 61

3.12.1 Dual roles of vitamin A 62

3.13 Vitamin E and Nutrigenomics 62

3.13.1 Vitamin E and atherosclerosis 62

3.13.2 Vitamin E and cholesterol biosynthesis 63

3.14 Vitamin D and Gene Interactions 63

3.14.1 Vitamin D and breast cancer 63

3.14.2 Vitamin D and FAs 64

3.15 Phytoestrogens and Gene Interactions 64

3.15.1 Phytoestrogens and breast cancer 64

3.15.2 Phytoestrogens and lipid, glucose metabolism 64

3.16 Phytosterols and Gene Interactions 65

3.16.1 Phytosterols and cholesterol metabolism 65

3.16.2 Phytosterols and cancer 65

3.17 Polyphenols and Gene Interactions 65

3.17.1 Polyphenols and CVD 65

3.17.2 Polyphenols and cancer 66

3.18 Nutrigenomics Summary: Advantages, Limitations, Future 66

3.19 Conclusions 67

References 67

4 Nutraceuticals and Antioxidant Function 75
Denise Young, Rong Tsao, and Yoshinori Mine

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Oxidative Stress and ROS 75

4.2.1 Endogenous sources of ROS 76

4.2.2 Exogenous sources of ROS 77

4.3 Antioxidants and Antioxidative Defense Systems 77

4.3.1 Endogenous antioxidants and antioxidative defenses 77

4.3.2 Dietary antioxidants 79

4.4 Phytochemicals 79

4.4.1 Polyphenols 80

4.4.2 Amides 85

4.4.3 Carotenoids 86

4.4.4 Mechanism of antioxidant action 87

4.5 Antioxidant Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins 90

4.6 Mechanism of Action of Antioxidant and Antioxidative Stress Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins 91

4.6.1 Amino acids 91

4.6.2 Peptides and proteins 91

4.7 Production of Antioxidant Peptides 95

4.8 Recent Advances in Analytical Techniques for Measuring Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Damage 96

4.8.1 Chemical antioxidant capacity assay 96

4.8.2 Cell-based antioxidant assays 99

4.9 Health Benefi ts of Nutraceutical Antioxidants 101

4.9.1 Evidence of antioxidant efficacy in disease states 101

4.9.2 Failure of antioxidants to demonstrate efficacy 102

4.10 Conclusion 102

References 103

5 Composition and Chemistry of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals: Infl uence on Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability 113
Jissy K. Jacob and Gopinadhan Paliyath

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Polyphenols as Antioxidants 115

5.2.1 Free radicals and endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms 115

5.2.2 Diet and exogenous antioxidants (flavonoids) 115

5.2.3 Antioxidant properties of flavonoids 117

5.3 Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanins 118

5.4 Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Localization 119

5.5 Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Polyphenols 121

5.6 Microstructural Characteristics of Grape Juice 122

5.7 Physicochemical Properties of the Dialyzed Juice Fraction 123

5.8 Ultrastructural Analysis of Juice Fractions 124

5.9 Composition of Juice Fractions 126

5.10 Antioxidant Activity of Juice Fractions 129

5.11 Metabolism and Bioavailability of Flavonoids 132

5.12 Dietary Polyphenols and Prevention of Diseases 135

5.12.1 Polyphenols and cardiovascular diseases 135

5.12.2 Polyphenols and cancer 136

5.13 Increasing Health Benefi cial Properties of Juices 137

References 139

6 Cruciferous Vegetable-Derived Isothiocyanates and Cancer Prevention 147
Ravi P. Sahu and Sanjay K. Srivastava

6.1 Introduction 147

6.2 Metabolism of Xenobiotics 149

6.3 ITCs and Inhibition of Cancer 150

6.3.1 Pancreatic cancer 150

6.3.2 Brain cancer 152

6.3.3 Prostate cancer 152

6.3.4 Lung cancer 154

6.3.5 Breast cancer 155

6.3.6 Colon cancer 156

6.3.7 Hepatic cancer 156

6.3.8 Bladder cancer 157

6.3.9 Multiple myeloma (MM) 158

6.3.10 Head and neck squamous cancer 159

6.3.11 Ovarian cancer 159

6.3.12 Skin cancer 160

Acknowledgments 161

References 161

7 The Disease-Preventive Potential of Some Popular and Underutilized Seeds 171
Rajeev Bhat

7.1 Introduction 171

7.2 Oil Seeds and Their Therapeutic Potential 172

7.2.1 Nigella seeds (Nigella sativa L.) 172

7.2.2 Sunfl ower seed (Helianthus annuus L.) 172

7.2.3 Groundnut seed (Arachis hypogea L.) 183

7.2.4 Sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) 184

7.2.5 Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) 184

7.2.6 Saffl ower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) 184

7.2.7 Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) 185

7.3 Spice Seeds as Medicine 185

7.3.1 Coriander seeds (Coriandrum satium L.) 185

7.3.2 Caraway (Cumin carvi L.) 186

7.3.3 Pepper seeds (Piper nigrum L.) 186

7.3.4 Cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.) 186

7.3.5 Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) 187

7.4 Legumes and Medicinal Use 187

7.4.1 Soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) 187

7.4.2 Mucuna pruriens L. 188

7.4.3 Tamarind seeds (Tamaridus indica L.) 188

7.5 Underutilized Seeds 189

7.5.1 Perilla (Perilla frutescens [Hassk.]) 189

7.5.2 Hunteria umbellata ([K. Schum] Hallier f.) 189

7.5.3 Microula sikkimensis (Hemsl.) 189

7.5.4 Chinese chive seeds (Allium tuberosum Rottl.) 190

7.5.5 Grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) 190

7.5.6 Pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita sp.) 191

7.5.7 Horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) 192

7.6 Future Outlook 192

References 193

8 Effects of Carotenoids and Retinoids on Immune-Mediated Chronic Inflammation in Infl ammatory Bowel Disease 213
Hua Zhang, Ming Fan, and Gopinadhan Paliyath

8.1 Introduction 213

8.2 Carotenoids 213

8.3 IBDs 214

8.4 Phytochemicals and Downregulation of IBD 215

8.4.1 Antioxidative capacity of carotenoids to reduce oxidative stress generated from inflammation 215

8.4.2 Immune-modulating activity of carotenoids 216

8.5 Effects of Carotenoids on Immune Genetic Mechanism of IBD 221

8.5.1 Potential role of retinoid receptors in attenuation of inflammatory diseases 222

8.5.2 Modulation of inflammatory responses through activation of nuclear receptors containing RXR heterodimers 223

8.6 Effects of Retinoids and Carotenoids on the Oxidative Stress Signaling Pathway 226

References 229

9 Ruminant Trans Fat as Potential Nutraceutical Components to Prevent Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease 235
Ye Wang, Catherine J. Field, and Spencer D. Proctor

9.1 Introduction 235

9.2 c9,t11-CLA Isomer and Health Implications 237

9.2.1 CLA modulates carcinogenesis 237

9.3 Mechanisms of CLA Action on Cancer 245

9.4 CLA Modulates CHD Risk Factors 245

9.5 Mechanisms of CLA Action on CHD 246

9.6 Vaccenic Acid 252

9.6.1 VA modulates carcinogenesis 253

9.6.2 VA modulates CVD risk factors 253

9.7 Dairy Fat Enriched with VA and CLA 254

9.7.1 Enriched dairy fat modulates carcinogenesis 254

9.7.2 Enriched dairy fat modulates CVD risk factors 255

9.8 Discussion 255

References 256

10 Nanotechnology for Cerebral Delivery of Nutraceuticals for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases 263
Jasjeet Kaur Sahni, Sihem Doggui, Lé Dao, and Charles Ramassamy

10.1 Introduction 263

10.2 Oxidative Stress in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and AD 264

10.3 Efficacy of Selected Components of Nutraceutical Compounds in the Amyloid Cascade and in the Prevention of AD 266

10.4 Targeted NPs for Delivery of Bioactives Compounds from Foods for the Treatment of AD 272

10.4.1 Catechins coupled with NPs 272

10.4.2 NPs targeted with ApoE containing curcumin 273

10.4.3 Resveratrol-loaded NPs protect againt Aß-induced toxicity 275

10.5 Conclusion 275

References 275

11 Cancer Prevention by Polyphenols: Influence on Signal Transduction and Gene Expression 285
Fatima Hakimuddin and Gopinadhan Paliyath

11.1 Introduction 285

11.2 Genetic Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis 285

11.3 Biochemical Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis 287

11.3.1 Pathways and signals involved in neoplastic cell transformation and carcinogenesis 287

11.3.2 Extracellular signal transduction 288

11.3.3 Intracellular signal transduction 289

11.4 Signaling Pathways in Breast Cancer 291

11.4.1 Calcium homeostasis and signaling 292

11.4.2 Role of calcium in regulating cell proliferation and cell cycle 293

11.4.3 Regulation of the cell cycle by calmodulin 293

11.4.4 Calcium signaling and cell death 293

11.4.5 Mitochondria, calcium signaling, and apoptosis 294

11.5 Cancer Prevention and Therapy 294

11.5.1 Targeted therapies 294

11.5.2 Phytochemicals and cancer prevention 296

11.6 Grapes and Red Wine as a Dietary Source of Polyphenols 298

11.6.1 Health benefi ts of red wine 298

11.6.2 Modulation of signaling pathways by fl avonoids 306

11.7 Genetic Approach: Identifi cation of Flavonoid Mediated Molecular Targets 308

11.8 Estrogen Metabolism, Breast Cancer, and Flavonoids 311

11.9 Polyphenols and Estrogen Signaling 312

References 313

12 Potato–Herb Synergies as Food Designs for Hyperglycemia and Hypertension Management 325
Fahad Saleem, Ali Hussein Eid, and Kalidas Shetty

12.1 Introduction 325

12.2 Phenolic-Enriched Chilean Potato and Select Species of Apiaceae and Lamiaceae Families in Diet 327

12.3 Combination of Potato with Seeds and/or Herbs for Hypertension and Hyperglycemia Management 331

12.3.1 Chilean potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tubersocum L.) 331

12.3.2 Apiaceae family 333

12.3.3 Lamiaceae family 335

12.4 Conclusions: Combining the Chilean Potato with Seeds and Herbs from the Apiaceae and Lamiaceae Families 336

References 338

13 Fermentation-Based Processing of Food Botanicals for Mobilization of Phenolic Phytochemicals for Type 2 Diabetes Management 341
Chandrakant Ankolekar and Kalidas Shetty

13.1 Introduction 341

13.2 Diabetes: The Rising Burden 342

13.3 Fermentation and Health: A Historical Perspective 342

13.4 Fermentation: Adding Value 343

13.4.1 Preservation of food through acid/alcohol formation 343

13.4.2 Enrichment of food substrates through formation of micro and macro nutrients 344

13.4.3 Flavor, aroma, and texture development 344

13.4.4 Detoxification of substrates during fermentation 345

13.5 Phenolic Antioxidants and Diabetes Management 345

13.6 Microbial Aerobic Growth and Fermentation and Its Anti-Diabetes Potential by Phenolic and Antioxidant Mobilization 346

13.6.1 Solid State Growth (SSG) 346

13.6.2 Liquid state (submerged) fermentation 347

13.7 Fruit Juice Fermentation for Healthy Food Ingredients for Management of Type 2 Diabetes 348

13.7.1 Apple juice fermentation 348

13.7.2 Pear juice fermentation 349

13.7.3 Cherry juice fermentation 349

13.8 Summary 350

References 351

14 Postharvest Strategies to Enhance Bioactive Ingredients for Type 2 Diabetes Management and Heart Health 357
Dipayan Sarkar and Kalidas Shetty

14.1 Introduction 357

14.2 Changing Dietary Patterns: A Historical Perspective 357

14.3 Noncommunicable Chronic Diseases: Era of New Global Epidemics 358

14.4 Healthy Diet: “Prevention Is Better Than Cure” 360

14.4.1 Fruits and vegetables: from garden of eden to modern horticulture 360

14.5 Bioactive Ingredients 361

14.6 Dietary Polyphenols: Impact on Human Health 362

14.6.1 Role of polyphenols in glucose metabolism 362

14.6.2 Polyphenols and cardiovascular disease 364

14.7 Phenolic Biosynthesis: Biological Mechanism to Improve Dietary Polyphenols in Plant Models 365

14.8 Postharvest Strategies to Improve Bioactive Ingredients in Fruits and Vegetables 367

14.8.1 Temperature 367

14.8.2 Light and oxygen 368

14.8.3 Chemical treatment and natural compounds 368

14.9 Phenolic-Linked Antioxidant Activity During Postharvest Stages in Fruits and Relevance for Type 2 Diabetes 369

14.10 Future Direction of Research: When Functional Food and Diet Become “Panacea” 370

14.10.1 Stage 1: physiology and growth during germination to maturity 370

14.10.2 Stage 2: postharvest management 371

14.10.3 Stage 3: food processing 371

14.10.4 Stage 4: biotechnological tools 372

14.10.5 Stage 5: in vitro studies 372

14.10.6 Stage 6: animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies 372

14.10.7 Stage 7: marketing, awareness, and education 373

14.11 Conclusions 373

References 373

15 Enhancing Functional Food Ingredients in Fruits and Vegetables 381
Shaila Wadud and Gopinadhan Paliyath

15.1 Introduction 381

15.2 Strategies for Nutritional Enhancement 382

15.3 Improving the Mineral Content of Plant Foods 383

15.3.1 Iron and zinc 384

15.4 Improving the Antioxidants Content of Plant Foods 385

15.4.1 Lycopene and ß-carotene 385

15.4.2 Vitamin E 387

15.4.3 Flavonoids 387

15.5 Improving the Amino Acid Content of Proteins of Plant Foods 389

15.6 Improving the Fatty Acid Composition of Plant Seed Oil 390

15.7 Influence of Processing and Storage in the Nutritive Value of Plant Foods 391

15.7.1 Processing of plant oils 391

15.7.2 Processing of fruits and vegetables 391

References 392

Index 395

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Dr Gopinadhan Paliyath is Professor in the Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Dr Marica Bakovic is Professor in the Department of Human Health & Nutritional Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Dr Kalidas Shetty is Professor in the Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA

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  • Covers the causes and development of diseases, genetic susceptibility and the role of lifestyle
  • Takes a nutrigenomics approach to disease prevention
  • Explores the importance of food apart from its nutritional role
  • Highlights nutraceuticals and their specific biochemical/molecular mechanisms of action
  • Discusses the physiological roles of nutraceuticals
  • Interprets how nutraceutical action leads to disease prevention
  • Considers global implications of changes in food habits and how diseases are becoming prevalent in some populations
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