Trees of the Northern United States and Canada
January 1991, Wiley-Blackwell
How to Identify a Tree.
Families and Genera--The Conifers.
Group 1 Short needles or scales, evergreen; closely spaced in opposite pairs or whorls of 3, often overlapping and obscuring the stem; seeds in cones, some cones berry-like.
Group 2 Introduced species hardy in southwestern British Columbia; leaves various shapes; seeds in cones.
Group 3 Needles evergreen, in bundles of 2, 3, or 5; seeds in cones.
Group 4 Needles deciduous (or evergreen), in tufts of 10 or more on dwarf shoots, also single on long shoots;seeds in cones.
Group 5 Needles evergreen, single, flat or 4-sided; seeds in cones.
Group 6 Needles evergreen, single, flat; twigs and buds green; single seed in a fleshy cup.
Group 7 Leaves fan-shaped, thin, notched; veins parallel, no midvein; seeds plum-like.
The Broadleaf Trees.
Families and Genera--The Broadleaf Trees.
Group 8 Leaves in opposite pairs (or subopposite or whorled); blade simple or compound; edges lobed, toothed, or smooth.
Group 9 Leaves alternate, compound (divided into 3 or more leaflets).
Group 10 Leaves alternate, simple; edges lobed.
Group 11 Leaves alternate, simple; edges toothed.
Group 12 Leaves alternate, simple; edges smooth; deciduous.
Keys to Groups and Selected Genera.
Winter Keys to the Genera.
Meanings of Tree Names.
Map of Forest Regions of Canada.
Map of Plant Hardiness Zones in Canada.
Index of English and Latin Names.
Index of French Common Names.