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Processing and Nutrition of Fats and Oils

Ernesto M. Hernandez (Original Author), Afaf Kamal-Eldin (Original Author)
ISBN: 978-0-8138-2767-4
276 pages
October 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Processing and Nutrition of Fats and Oils reviews current and new practices of fats and oils production. The book examines the different aspects of fats and oils processing, how the nutritional properties are affected, and how fats interact with other components and nutrients in food products. Coverage includes current trends in the consumption of edible fats and oils; properties of fats, oils and bioactive lipids; techniques to process and modify edible oils; nutritional aspects of lipids; and regulatory aspects, labeling and certifications of fats and oils in foods.
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Table of Contents

1 Current trends in the consumption of fats and foods 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Production trends of fats and oils 2

1.3 Fat consumption trends 4

1.4 Fats and nutrients 5

1.5 Dietary fat intake trends 7

1.6 Trends in healthy fats and foods 9

1.7 Future trends 11

References 14

2 Chemical and physical properties of lipids 17

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Classification of lipids 17

2.3 Lipid class characteristics 18

2.4 Chemical properties of lipids 31

2.5 Physical properties of lipids 34

References 37

3 Biochemical and bioactive properties of fats and oils 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Composition and properties of edible fats and oils 39

3.3 Fatty acid metabolism and utilization 43

3.4 Health effects of common fatty acids 47

3.5 Special dietary fatty acids and their health effects 51

3.6 Minor components of fats and oils 53

References 57

4 Nutraceutical and functional properties of specialty lipids 65

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Specialty oils and fatty acids and their nutraceutical applications 66

4.3 Fractionated lipids and cocoa butter substitutes 70

4.4 Structured triacylglycerols 71

4.5 Structured lipids and phospholipids 73

4.6 Low calorie fat and oil substitutes 73

4.7 Plant sterol and stanol preparations 75

4.8 Lipid-soluble vitamins 75

4.9 Other specialty lipids in fats and oils 76

References 77

5 Current processing techniques for fats and oils 83

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 Production of edible oils 85

5.3 Processing of vegetable oils 91

5.4 Types of oil products 102

References 106

6 Processing of oils for functional and nutritional applications 109

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Extraction of bioactive lipids 109

6.3 Concentration of bioactive lipids 111

6.4 Microencapsulation, emulsions, and nanoparticles 115

6.5 Stabilization of bioactive lipids 118

References 120

7 Modified oils—synthesis and applications of structured lipids and phospholipids 125

7.1 Introduction 125

7.2 Interesterification 125

7.3 Structured lipids 127

7.4 Structured phospholipids 130

7.5 Crystallization 132

7.6 Conclusions 133

References 133

8 New developments in micronutrients and lipids 137

8.1 Introduction 137

8.2 Micronutrients 138

8.3 Lipids as micronutrients 141

8.4 Micronutrients and metabolic oxidation 144

References 149

9 Role of antioxidants in the human diet and effects of food processing 155

9.1 Introduction 155

9.2 Basic chemistry of oxidation reactions in foods 155

9.3 Generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species during food processing and storage 164

9.4 Antioxidant changes and roles during food processing 168

References 170

10 Nutrigenomics and lipids in the human diet 175

10.1 Introduction 175

10.2 Effects of dietary lipids on gene transcription 176

10.3 Nutrigenomics and obesity 181

10.4 Conclusions 185

References 185

11 Role of lipids and essential fatty acids in the infant diet 191

11.1 Introduction 191

11.2 Nutrition requirements for infants 192

11.3 Lipids in infant development 193

11.4 Essential fatty acids in the infant diet 196

11.5 Essential fatty acids in cognitive and visual development 198

11.6 Other lipids in infant development 200

11.7 Conclusions 201

References 201

12 Formulation of foods with bioactive and functional lipids 207

12.1 Introduction 207

12.2 Plant sterols and stanols 208

12.3 Diacylglycerols 210

12.4 Omega-3 fatty acids 210

12.5 Conjugated linoleic acid 211

12.6 Lorenzo’s oil 212

12.7 Lipid-soluble vitamins 214

12.8 Coenzyme Q10 216

12.9 Conclusions 216

References 218

13 Cosmetic and pharmaceutical properties of fats and oils 223

13.1 Introduction 223

13.2 Bioactive lipids and health 224

13.3 Lipids in drug delivery 227

13.4 Lipids in cosmetic applications 233

13.5 Quality of lipids in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications 237

References 239

14 Labeling and health claims of fats and oils in foods 245

14.1 Introduction 245

14.2 Food labeling 245

14.3 Health and nutrition claims in food labeling 248

14.4 Health and nutrition claims in countries other than the United States 252

14.5 Conclusions and future trends 254

References 255

Index 257

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Author Information

Ernesto M. Hernandez, Ph.D. is Director of Process Development at Omega Protein, Inc., Houston, TX and is responsible for research and development of the food division. Previously, he served as Head, Fats and Oils Program, Food Protein Research and Development Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.

Afaf Kamal-Eldin, Ph.D. is Professor at United Arab Emirates University, Department of Food Science.

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The Wiley Advantage


  • Reviews current and new practices of fats and oils production
  • Emphasizes design of food formulations using nutrigenomics
  • Applications demonstrate latest concepts and technologies
  • Co-authored by experts at the forefront of bioactive lipids research
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