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Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes

ISBN: 978-0-8169-0554-6
448 pages
October 1993
Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes (0816905541) cover image
Increased automation reduces the potential for operator error, but introduces the possibility of new types of errors in design and maintenance. This book provides designers and operators of chemical process facilities with a general philosophy and approach to safe automation, including independent layers of safety.
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List of Figures.

List of Tables.

Preface.

Glossary.

Acronyms.

Chapter 1. Introduction.

1.0. Objective.

1.1. Scope.

1.2. Limitations.

1.3. Overview of the Contents.

Chapter 2. The Place of Automation in Chemical Plant Safety...A Design Philosophy.

2.0. Chemical Plant Operations in Transition.

2.1. Plant Automation.

2.2. A Framework for Chemical Process Safety.

2.3. Chemical Plant Safety System Development.

2.4. Safety System Design Philosophy.

2.5. References.

Chapter 3. Techniques for Evaluating Integrity Of Process control Systems.

3.0. Introduction.

3.1. Safety and Integrity Evaluation Techniques.

3.2. Typical Process Hazard Review Activities and Outputs.

3.3. System Integrity Evaluation Criteria and Certification Methods.

3.4. Emerging Documents.

3.5. References.

Chapter 4. Safety Considerations in the Selection and Design of Basic Process Control Systems.

4.0. Introduction.

4.1. BPCS Technology Selection.

4.2. Signals.

4.3. Field Measurements.

4.4. Final Control Elements.

4.5. Process Controllers.

4.6. Operator / Control System Interfaces.

4.7. Communication Considerations in Typical PES Architectures.

4.8. Electrical Power Distribution Systems.

4.9. Control-System Grounding for Personnel and Signal Protection.

4.10. Batch Control with Regulatory and Discrete Control.

4.11. Software Design and Data Structures.

4.12. Advanced Computer-Control Strategies.

4.13. Administrative Actions.

4.14. References.

Chapter 5. Safety Considerations in the Selection and Design of Safety Interlock Systems (SISs).

5.0. Introduction.

5.1. SIS Design Issues.

5.2. Perform SIS Requirements Analysis.

5.3. SIS Technology Selection.

5.4. Select SIS Architecture.

5.5. Select SIS Equipment.

5.6. Perform SIS DESIGN.

5.7. References.

Chapter 6. Administrative Actions to Ensure Control System Integrity.

6.0. Introduction.

6.1. Communication of Procedures.

6.2. Maintenance Facilities Planning.

6.3. Testing Bpcs Hardware and Software276.

6.4. SIS and Alarm Test Procedures.

6.5. Testing Frequency Requirements.

6.6. Installed Test Connections and Necessary Bypasses.

6.7. Plant Operations Training with Installed Controls.

6.8. Documentation of the BPCS and SIS.

6.9. Audit Program to Keep Emphasis on BPCS / SIS Maintenance and Documentation Activities.

6.10. Simulation.

6.11. Process Control Organization and Staffing.

6.12. References.

Chapter 7. An Example: These Guidelines Applied to the Safe Automation of a Batch Polymerization Reactor.

7.0. Introduction.

7.1. Project Definition.

7.2. Hazard Identification.

7.3. Process Design Strategy.

7.4. SIS Integrity Level Selection.

7.5. Design of the BPCS.

7.6. Risk Assessment and Control.

7.7. Design and Validation of the SIS.

7.8. Installation and Validation of the SIS.

7.9. Administrative Procedures to Maintain Integrity.

7.10. Approach for Automation of an Existing Facility.

7.11. References.

Chapter 8. The Path Forward...To More Automated, Safe Chemical Plants.

8.0. Introduction.

8.1. Governmental Regulations and Industry Initiatives.

8.2. Management Expectations and Changing Workplace Factors.

8.3. Measurement, Control, and Communication Technologies of the 1990s.

8.4. Summary.

8.5. References.

Appendix A. SIS Technologies.

A.1. Pneumatic / Hydraulic.

A.2. Electrical Logic Technology.

A.3. PES Technology.

A.4. Hybrid Systems.

Appendix B. Separation.

Appendix C. Typical Watchdog Timer Circuits.

C.1. Internal Watchdog Timers.

C.2. External Watchdog Timers.

Appendix D. Communications.

D.1. Common Communications Techniques.

D.2. I / O Communications.

Appendix E. Sensor Fail-Safe Considerations.

Appendix F. SIS Equipment Selection Considerations.

F.1. Separation Application Guidelines.

F.2. Diversity Application Guidelines.

F.3. Software Application Matrix.

F.4. Diagnostics Application Matrix.

F.5. Communications Application Guidelines.

Appendix G. Potential PES Failure Modes.

Appendix H. Factory Acceptance Test Guidelines.

H.1. Purpose of the FAT.

H.2. Participants in the FAT.

H.3. Preparar5ion for the FAT.

H.4. General Procedure.

H.5. Responsibilities.

H.6. FAT Schedule.

H.7. Documents.

H.8. Test Equipment.

H.9. Detailed Test Procedure.

H.10. Equipment Acceptance.

H.11. FAT Preparation Document.

Index.

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