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DSP-Based Testing of Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuits

ISBN: 978-0-8186-0785-1
272 pages
May 1987, Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press
DSP-Based Testing of Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuits (0818607858) cover image


Answers the commonly asked questions about how digital signal processing-based machines work and what role DSP plays in the process. It shows you how DSP performs in real-test situations and uses mathematical concepts rather than derivations. The text addresses difficult test problems and their solutions resulting from the union of automatic test equipment (ATE) and DSP. The author establishes a philosophy of DSP-based testing describing how to think, how to approach a problem, how to create a solution, and how to determine if it really works properly.
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Introduction to DSP-Based Testing.

Overview of Testing.

Emulation versus Automation.

Invisible Instruments.

Numerical Vectors.

Vector Transfer.

Vector and Array Processing Speed.

Processor Speed.

Floating-Point Mathematics.

Phase-Lock Synchronization.

Representative Digitizer.

DSP-Based Test Advantages Summarized.

Price of Using DSP . . .

Chapter 2: Accuracy and Speed of Emulated Instruments.

Hardware Emulation.

Integration versus Filtering for AC Measurements.

Coherent Measurement.

Unit Test Period.

Coherent Filtering.


Fourier Voltmeter.

Software Version of the FVM.

Orthogonal Signals and Fourier Voltmeters.

DFT and FFT.


Frequency Leakage.

Graphical Example of FFT Application.

Chapter 3: Noncoherent Sampling.


Time and Spectral Vectors.

Imaging and Noncoherent Undersampling.

Heterodyning and Reconstruction.

Rules of Imaging.

Sampling Rates and Spacing.

Nyquist's Limit.

Universal Rule for Noncoherent Sampling.

Sine-X-over-X Distortion and Correction.

Receiver/Reconstruction Filtering.

Chapter 4: Coherence.

Vector Periodicity.

Amount of Information in a Vector.

Effective Sampling Rate.

Chapter 5: Multitone Testing.

Multitone Distortion Measurement.

Multitone Frequency Measurement.

Multitone versus Single Tone Applications.

Error Sources and Accuracy.

Effect of Device Uncertainty on Multitone Tests.

Factors Affecting Accuracy.

Out-of-Band Measurement Uncertainty.

Estimating Multitone Accuracy.

Estimating Multitone Uncertainty Due to Quantization.

Chapter 6: Vector Operations for DSP Testing.

Vector Operations in DSP-Programming.

Program Examples.

Chapter 7: Event Digitizing.

Explicit versus Implicit Sampling.

Event Digitizer.

Testing Tape Decks.

Chapter 8: Measuring Random Noise.

Equivalent Input Noise.

Normalized Spectral Noise Density.

Typical DSP Procedure.

Input Resistors.

Coupling Capacitor.

Noise Bandwidth.

Accuracy and Repeatability of Noise Measurements.

Statistical Sampling versus DSP Sampling.

Estimating the Repeatability of Local Measurements.

Cautions about Averaging.

Computing Spectral Power from a Sparsely Sampled Signal.


Chapter 9: Introduction to A/D Testing.

A/D versus D/A Conversion.

Transfer Maps.

Transmission Parameters versus Intrinsic Parameters.

Conversion Formats and Types.

Uncertainty and Distortion of the Ideal ADC.

DAC Transfer Error.

Superposition Error.

Adapting D/A Parameters to ADC Measurement.

Probabilistic Estimation of ADC Input Noise.

Dynamic Testing.

Noise Improvement Figure.

Random Voltage Noise.

Induced Jitter Noise.

Equivalent Number of Bits.

Idle Noise and Noise Power Ratio.

Separating Quantization Distortion from Noise.

Chapter 10: Techniques for Flash Converter Testing.

Linear Histogram Testing.

Histograms with Sparkle Codes and Missing Codes.

Obtaining the Transfer Function from the Histogram.

Integral Linearity Error from the Transfer Curve.

ILE Directly from DLE: A Fast Method.

Centerlines for Histogram-Derived ILE.

Integral Linearity from Weighted Code Centers.

MIL-STD Regression Line Approach.

Extreme Values of Linearity Error.

Differential Linearity from Weighted Code Center Information.

Dynamic Testing.

Sinusoidal Histogram Testing.

Using the Tally to Find MAT T2.

Errors with Sinusoidal Histograms.

Spectral Analysis.

Noise Measurement.

Noise Separation.

Progressive Spectra.


Differential Phase (DP).

Differential Gain (DG).

Chapter 11: Incremental Models for DSP-Based Testing with Applications to Transient and Flutter Measurement.


Limitations of Vector Processors.

Incremental Modeling.

Comparison with Continuous Equations.

RC High Pass Model.

Time Scaling and Normalization.

Ballistic Peaks.

Ballistic Peak Detection Models.

Generalized Approach.

Wow and Flutter Measurement.

DIN/IEEE/ANSI/Quasi-Peak Detection.

DIN Frequency Weighting.

Importance of Phase Response in Peak-Reading Instruments.

Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filtering.

Chapter 12: CODEC Testing.

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) CODEC Channel.

Encoding Law.

Five Kinds of Tests.

Full Channel versus Half Channel.

Normalized Mu-Law and A-Law Measurement Units.

Review of Decibel-Based Measurement Units.

CODEC Performance Tests.

Gain and Loss.

Choosing the Test Frequency.

Frequency Distribution.

Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Error.

Transmission Parameters.

Half Channel Encoder Testing.

Decoder Testing.

Other Decoder Performance Tests.

References for CODEC (PCM) Telephone Standards.

Chapter 13: Selected Reprints.

Automated Measurement of 12- to 16-Bit Converters
M. Mahoney (Proceedings of the 1981 IEEE Test Conference, 1981. pages 319-327).

DSP Measurement of Frequency
E. Rosenfeld (Proceedings of the International Test Conference, 1986, pages 981-986).

DSP Synthesized Signal Source for Analog Testing Stimulus and New Test Method
H. Kitayoshi, S. Sumida. K. Shirakawa, and S. Takeshita (Proceedings of the International Test Conference, 1985, pages 825-834).

An NBS Calibration Service for A/D and D/A Conveners
TM. Souders and D.R. Flach (Proceedings of the 1981 IEEE Test Conference, 1981, pages 290-303).

Production Testing of PCM (Digital) Audio Circuits
M. Landry (Proceedings of the International Test Conference, 1983, pages 767-770).

Chapter 14: Appendix: References/Bibliography.

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