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Wrasse: Biology and Use in Aquaculture

M. D. J. Sayer (Editor), J. W. Treasurer (Editor), M. J. Costello (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-85238-236-3
296 pages
April 1996, Wiley-Blackwell
Wrasse: Biology and Use in Aquaculture (0852382367) cover image
Sea lice remain one of the main problems in salmon farming, with estimated costs of treatment and losses of fish running to several million pounds each year in Scotland alone. The use of chemical methods by the industry has brought adverse publicity and wrasse (cleaner fish) present an alternative, environmentally friendly means of biological control. As a result, the demand for wrasse has spawned a new inshore fishery, and this has led to calls for more information on the population dynamics and size of stocks. Attempts are also being made to rear wrasse for stocking. As a consequence there is considerable interest in cleaner fish technology from fish farmers and research workers. This book draws together the latest information on the biology and culture of wrasse, and the use of wrasse in controlling sea lice.
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Preface viii

1 Wrasse Biology

1 North European wrasse: identification, distribution and habitat 3
M.D.J. Sayer and J. W. Treasurer

2 Seasonal, sexual and geographical variation in the biology of goldsinny, corkwing and rock cook on the west coast of Scotland 13
M.D.J. Sayer, R.N. Gibson and R.J.A. Atkinson

3 Observations of wrasse on an artificial reef 47
K.J. Collins, A.C. Jensen and J.J. Mallinson

4 Field observations of the cleaning of ballan wrasse and torment feeding 55
M. Breen

5 The territorial range of goldsinny wrasse on a small natural reef 61
K.J. Collins

6 Distribution and abundance of wrasse in an area of northern Norway 70
K. Maroni and P. Andersen

7 Capture techniques for wrasse in inshore waters of west Scotland 74
J.W. Treasurer

8 The biology of inshore goldsinny populations: can they sustain commercial exploitation? 91
M.D.J. Sayer, R.N. Gibson, and R.J.A. Atkinson

9 The effect of intensive fishing of wild wrasse populations in Lettercallow Bay, Connemara, Ireland: implications for the future management of the fishery 100
S.J.A. Varian, S. Deady, and J.M. Fives

10 Survival, osmoregulation and oxygen consumption of wrasse at low salinity and/or low temperature 119
M.D.J. Sayer, J.P. Reader and J. Davenport

11 Preliminary breeding trials of wrasse in an intensive system 136
A.B. Skiftesvik, K. Boxaspen and A. Parsons

12 Preliminary trials on the culture of goldsinny and corkwing wrasse 142
J. Stone

II Aquaculture Applications

13 Development and future of cleaner-fish technology and other biological control techniques in fish farming 171
M.J. Costello

14 Wrasse (Labridae) as cleaner-fish of sea lice on farmed Atlantic salmon in west Scotland 185
J.W. Treasurer

15 Large-scale use of wrasse to control sea lice and net fouling in salmon farms in Norway 196
P.G. Kvenseth

16 Wrasse as cleaner-fish: the Shetland experience 204
C.M. Young

17 Parasites and diseases of wrasse being used as cleaner-fish on salmon farms in Ireland and Scotland
M.J. Costello, S. Deady, A. Pike and J.M. Fives

18 Health status of goldsinny wrasse, including a detailed examination of parasite community at Flodevigen, southern Norway 228
E. Karlsbakk, K. Hodneland and A. Nylund

19 The potential for viral problems related to the use of wrasse (Labridae) in the farming of Atlantic salmon 240
D.R. Gibson and C. Sommerville

20 Virulence of Vibrio anguillarum serotypes 01 and 02. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. Salmonicida and atypical Aeromonas salmonicida to goldsinny wrasse 247
K. Gravningen, P.G. Kvenseth and R.O. Hovlid

21 Determination of satiation and maintenance rations of goldsinny wrasse fed on mussel meat 251
D.B. Garforth, M.J. Costello, R.D. Fitzgerald and T.F. Cross

22 Successful survival of wrasse through winter in submersible netcages in fjord in western Norway 265
R. Bjelland, J. Lokke, L. Simensen and P.G. Kvenseth

23 Wrasse biology and aquaculture applications: commentary and conclusions 272
M.D.J. Sayer, J.W. Treasurer and M.J. Costello

III Appendix 1 A guide to the use of cleaner-fish 275

Index 278

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Sea lice cause huge losses to the salmon industry. Wrasse present an alternative solution to the problem of finding an environmentally acceptable alternative to chemical methods of control. Rapid growth of interest in the use of wrasse since the technique was first used commercially in Norway in 1988 Need for reliable, scientifically sound information and guidance
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