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Light Metals 2008, Volume 2, Aluminum Reduction Technology

ISBN: 978-0-87339-722-3
1 pages
March 2008
Light Metals 2008, Volume 2, Aluminum Reduction Technology (0873397223) cover image
Volume two of four: This publication includes papers on aluminum reduction from the 2008 TMS Annual Meeting. Other volumes include papers on alumina and bauxite, carbon technology, cast shop technology, hot and cold rolling and recycling aluminum.

From the 2008 TMS Annual Meeting, held March 9-12, 2008, in New Orleans, LA.

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Preface.

Editor's Biography.

Program Organizer's.

Aluminum Committee.

Alumina and Bauxite.

HSEC.

Safety Performance at Alunorte (Jorge Lima).

Tailings Impoundment Life Extension at Sherwin Alumina: Success Breeds Its Own Challenges (Thomas Ballou, and Ed Peterson).

Proposed Mechanism for the Formation of Dust Horizons on Bauxite Residue Disposal Areas (Craig Klauber, Nicole Harwood, Renee Hockridge, and Campbell Middleton).

Waste into Wealth (S. Balasubramaniam, and R. Vasantha Kumar).

Short- and Long-Range Order in Smelter Grade Alumina - Development of Nano- and Microstructure during the Calcination of Bayer Gibbsite (Linus Perander, Zoran D. Zujovic, Margaret M. Hyland, Mark E. Smith, Luke A. O'Dell, and James B. Metson).

Equipment.

Advanced Filtration Methods for Pregnant Liquor Purification (Reinhard Bott, Thomas Langeloh, and Juergen Hahn).

Digestion Energy Efficiency at RTA Yarwun Alumina Refinery (Stephen Austin, and Samantha Parry).

Operational Experience with a Brownfield Expansion Project in Sayanogorsk, Russia (Andreas Wolf, Peter Hilgraf, Arne Hilck, and Sergey V. Marshalko).

MAX HTTMSodalite Scale Inhibitor: Plant Experience and Impact on the Process (Donald Spitzer, Owen Chamberlain, Calvin Franz, Morris E. Lewellyn, and Qi Dai).

How to Achieve High Availability with Large Calciners and Avoid Unforseen Downtime (Pekka Hiltunen, Roger Bligh, Cornelis Klett, Michael Missalla, and Hans-Werner Schmidt).

Customized Descaling Robots - Improving Worker’s Health and Safety, Increasing Alumina Production Capacity (Clément Potvin, Antonio Pucci, Claude Caya, Don Puxley, and Éloïse Harvey).

Determination of a Suitable Dewatering Technology for Filtration of Bauxite after Pipeline Transport (Adriano Campos, and Reinhard Bott).

Bauxite.

Chinese Bauxite and Its Influences on Alumina Production in China (Songqing Gu).

Alunorte Bauxite Dewatering Station - a Unique Experience (Ayana Oliveira, Juarez Dutra, and Jorge Lima).

A New Method Using Hydraulic Excavator and Tractor on Paragominas Bauxite Mine (Octávio Guimarâes, Henrique Cesar Vieira Santos, and Hildegundes Silva).

Design and Operation of the World’s First Long Distance Bauxite Slurry Pipeline (Ramesh Gandhi, Michael Weston, Maru Talavera, Geraldo Pereira Brittes, and Eder Barbosa).

Bauxite to Gallium - The Electronic Metal of the Twenty-First Century (Chitta Mishra, and M. K. B. Nair).

Behaviour of Berylium in Alumina Production from Bauxites by Bayer Process and Development of Reliable Method of Its Determination (Alexander Suss, Irina Paromova, Andrey Panov, Olga V. Shipova, and Natalia N. Kutkova).

Impact of Jamaican Bauxite Mineralogy on Plant Operations (Desmond Lawson, Ab Rijkeboer, Lawrence Andermann, and Austin Mooney).

Additives.

New Crystal Growth Modifiers for Bayer Process (Dimitri Kouznetsov, Jianjun Liu, Kevin O'Brien, James Counter, and John Kildea).

The Effect of DSP Structure on Removal of Impurities from Refinery Liquor and Efficiency of Alkali Recovery Process (A. Kuvyrkina, N. Kuznetsova, A. Lapin, A. Suss, and Andrey Panov).

Performance Appraisal of Evaporation System with Scale Inhibitor Application in Alunorte Plant (Ayana Oliveira, Juarez Dutra De Moraes, Jefferson Dos Santos Batista, Jorge Lima, Ricardo Lyan Carvalho Diniz, and Emiliano Repetto).

Cost Savings by Improved Filtration and Washing of Al-Hydrate Product (Reinhard Bott, Thomas Langeloh, and Juergen Hahn).

Autoprecipitation Control with HXPAM Technology (Qi Dai, Scott Moffatt, and Morris Lewellyn).

Application and Performance Characteristics of Superfloc TF-8000 - A New HXPAM Based Hydrate Flocculant (Franklyn Ballentine, Scott Moffatt, and Pat Clement).

Operations.

The Kinetics of Quartz Dissolution in Caustic Solutions and Synthetic Bayer Liquors (Bingan Xu, Christine Wingate, and Peter Smith).

Potential Improvements of Bauxite Atmospheric Digestion Circuit (Alexander Suss, Nikolay Ivanushkin, Irina Paromova, Anatoly Lapin, Andrey Panov, Tatiana Gabrielyan, S. Snurnitzyna, and T. Martynyuk).

Process Diagnosis Based on Neural Network Expert System for Gas Suspension Calcinations of Aluminum Hydroxide (Dai fei Liu, Jie Li, Feng qi Ding, Zhong Zou, and Xiang tao Chen).

Review on the Quality of Alumina (Wangxing Li, Dalin Fan, Zhonglin Yin, and Zhanwei Liu).

Precipitation.

The Effects of Wet Oxidation on Hydrate Yield Inhibitors in Alkaline Aluminate Solutions (Joanne Loh, Greta Brodie, Greg Power, and Chris Vernon).

Using Mass Balance for Solids Concentration Control at Agglomerator Tanks (Anderson Amaral, Cleto Maués Junior, Luiz Gustavo Correa, Jorge Lima, Joaquim Ribeiro Filho, and Luiz dos Santos).

The Most Important Sustainable Development Issues of Chinese Alumina Industry (Wangxing Li, Jibo Liu, Zhiming Liu, and Yadong Wang).

The Impact of Conversion from Batch to Continuous Agglomeration at the Ewarton Alumina Refinery (Patrick Harris).

Characterization Profile in Scales from CVG-Bauxilum (Ricardo Galarraga, Royman Cañas, and Nelson Piñero).

Aluminum Reduction Technology.

Sustainability and Environment.

Innovative Solutions to Sustainability in Hydro (Hans Petter Lange, Nancy Jorunn Holt, Hogne Linga, and Lene Navestad Solli).

Smelters in the EU and the Challenge of the Emission Trading Scheme (Heinrich Kruse).

Wireless Measurement of Duct Temperatures on Aluminum Smelting Pots: Correlation to Roofline HF Concentration (Daniel A. Steingart, James Evans, Andrew Redfern, Paul K. Wright, Neal Dando, Weizong Xu, Michael Gershenzon, and Henk Van der Meyden).

Hard Gray Scale (Neal Dando, and Stephen Lindsay).

Comparison of PFC Emission Rates for Operating and Newly Started Pots at a Horizontal Stud Soderberg Smelter (Neal Dando, Weizong Xu, Roger Nickols, Steven Rusche, and Mitch Nemier).

Reduced Emissions from the Elkem Aluminium Lista Søderberg Smelter (Tor Pedersen, Marianne Jensen, Kjell Kalgraf, Willi Larsen, and Arnt Tellef Olsen).

Comparison of PFC Emission Coefficients for Operating and Startup Pots at a Side Work Prebake Smelter (Weizong Xu, Neal Dando, and David Sedlacek).

Scrubbing: Development of a Technical Audit System for Process, Operation and Maintenance (Mario Dion, and Michel Meyer).

Cell Development Part I and Operations.

The FECRI Approach and the Latest Development of AP3X Technology (Oliver Martin, Serge Despinasse, Claude Ritter, Renaud Santerre, and Thierry Tomasino).

Expansion of the Potline in Slovalco (Marvin Bugge, Milos Koniar, Kamil Skladan, and Milan Stas).

The Alcan's P155 Smelters Now Operating at 195 kA: A Successful Assets Optimization Strategy (Claude Richard, Patrice Desrosiers, Louis Lefrançois, and Bruno Gaudreault).

Design Enhancements to GP320 Technology at Balco (J. Ramaswamy, C Sukumaran, and Gude Narendra Kumar).

The Continuous Development of SAMI's SY300 Technology (Zhu Jiaming, Yang Xiaodong, and Liu Yafeng).

Increase of Amperage at Sayanogorsk Aluminum Smelter (Victor Mann, Victor Buzunov, Oleg Burkatsky, Alexander Krasovitsky, and Iliya Puzanov).

Anode Signal Analysis: The Next Generation in Reduction Cell Control (Jeffrey Keniry, and Eugene Shaidulin).

Image Analysis for Estimation of Anode Cover Material Composition (Jayson Tessier, Carl Duchesne, Claude Gauthier, and Gilles Dufour).

An Automated Metal Purity Optimization System for Enhanced Revenue Capture (Jason Lodzik, Michael Van Hauwermeiren, and Doc Murdoch).

Impact of Alumina Fines Content on Potline Performance Ouro Preto Smelter (Thiago Simões, João Alberto Martins, Marcio Guimarães, and João Costa).

Process Control.

Common Cell Behavior and Cell Abnormalities in Aluminium Reduction Cells (Marco Stam, Mark Taylor, John Chen, Albert Mulder, and Renuka Rodrigo).

Novel Method of Measuring the Liquidus and Bath Temperature of Hall-Héroult Cells (Hans Bohner, V. Arora, and T.K. Nasipuri).

Analysis of a Potroom Performance Drift, from a Multivariate Point of View (Jayson Tessier, Carl Duchesne, Gary Tarcy, Claude Gauthier, and Gilles Dufour).

Experimental Designs for Use in the Aluminium Industry (Stephen Rutledge).

Practical Applications of the Continous Measurement of Individual Anode Currents in Hall-Heroult Cells (Roald Hvidsten, and Ketil Rye).

Experiments on Wireless Measurement of Anode Currents in Hall Cells (Daniel A. Steingart, James Evans, Paul K. Wright, and Donald P. Ziegler).

Smart Feeders at Alumar Plant (Haroldo Ferreira, Nilton Nagem, Carlos Braga, Pedro Leite, Bruno Coimbra, Eliezar Batista, Elisio Bessa, Edison Maia, Ciro Kato, and Joel Camara).

Breakthrough in Analysis of Electrolytic Bath Using Rietveld-XRD Method (Frank Feret).

Model Predictive Control of Superheat for Prebake Aluminum Production Cells (Zeng Shuiping, Li Jinhong, and Peng Qianqiang).

The Application of Data Mining Technology in the National Aluminum Test Base (WangXing Li, QingYun Zhao, ShiLin Qiu, and Qiang Li).

Discussion of Alumina Feeding Control Strategies (Qi Xiquan, Li Shujie, Wu Youwei, Ma Shaoxian, Mao Jihong, and Wang Dequan).

The Impact of Bath Ratio Control Improvements on Current Efficiency Increase (Thiago Simões, João Alberto Martins, Marcio Guimarães, and João Bosco Reis).

Aluminum Industry in Mid-East.

Aluminium Smelting Greenhouse Footprint and Sustainability (Jeffrey Keniry).

Development of Aluminum Production Capacity in the Middle East and Siberia (Halvor Kvande).

Rusals Expansion Based on Hydropower (Horst Peters).

DX Technology: The Development and the Way Forward (Abdulla Kalban, Yousuf Ali AlFarsi, and Abdelhamid Meghlaoui).

Alba Line 5 Expansion - Solutions for a Better Environment (Thierry Malard, and Maxime Depinoy).

Reduction Cell Modelling.

Optimization in Magnetic Modeling (Stéphane Wan Tang Kuan, Denis Jacquet, Thierry Tomasino, and Carlos Canutas De Wit).

Shallow Water Model for Aluminium Electrolysis Cells with Variable Top and Bottom (Valdis Bojarevics, and Koulis Pericleous).

Impact of the Vertical Potshell Deformation on the MHD Cell Stability Behavior of a 500kA Aluminum Electrolysis Cell (Marc Dupuis, Valdis Bojarevics, and Daniel Richard).

Comparison of Various Methods for Modeling the Metal-Bath Interface (Dagoberto Severo, Vanderlei Gusberti, Andre F. Schneider, Elton C. V. Pinto, and Vinko Potocnik).

Modeling and Measurement of Metal Pad Velocity in a 208 Ka End to End Prebaked Cells (Mohamed Doheim, Abdel El-Kersh, Nabil Kotb, Mohamed Ali, and M.O. Ibraheim).

Dynamics of the Gas Emission from Aluminum Electrolysis Cells (Laszlo Kiss, and Klara Vekony).

Freeze Thickness in the Aluminum Electrolysis Cells (Laszlo Kiss, and Véronique Dassylva-Raymond).

Application of Mathematical Methods to Optimize Aluminium Production in Pre-Baked Anode Cells (Alex Knizhnik, Alexandr A. Kusakov, Boris I. Zelberg, and Vaycheslav V. Veselkov).

Two-Dimensional Model of Melt Flows and Interface Instability in Aluminum Reduction Cells (Mehdi Kadkhodabeigi).

Cell Development Part II.

Last Development in AP50 Cell (Ben Benkahla, Yves Caratini, Hervé Mezin, Steve Renaudier, and S. Fardeau).

Fjardaal Smelter Project, Iceland - Modular Construction (Sam P. Maliha, Bernard Cloutier, Warren McKenzie, and Joe L. Wahba).

Successful Dry Restart of the Hamburg Smelter (Till Reek, Joerg Prepeneit, and David Eisma).

20 Years of Continues Improvements in TALUM Smelter (Cus Zlatko, and Avgust Sibila).

Faster Normalisation of Cells After Bath up (Ali Mohmad Al Zarouni, B. Kakkar, and Arvind Kumar).

Development of New Generation SY300 Technology (Kangjian Sun, Xiaodong Yang, Yafeng Liu, and Baoguo Chen).

Thyristor Rectifiers for Aluminium Plants with Advanced Freewheeling Control (Shripad Tambe, Wynand Lauwrens, and Markus Rechsteiner).

Alcoa's Pathway to Reliability Excellence (Vincent C. Adorno, and Randy Heisler).

Fundamentals, New Technologies, Inert Anodes.

Technical Contributions of the Late Warren Haupin - A Review (Jay Bruggeman).

Top Heat Loss in Hall-Heroult Cells (Xian Chun Shen, Margaret Hyland, and Barry Welch).

Electrolysis of Aluminum in the Low Melting Electrolytes Based on Potassium Cryolite (Yurii Zaikov, Andrey Khramov, Vadim Kovrov, Vasily Kryukovsky, Alexey Apisarov, Olga Tkacheva, Oleg Chemesov, and Nikolay Shurov).

Influence of CaF2 on the Properties of the Low-Temperature Electrolyte Based on the KF-AlF3 (CR=1,3) System (Alexander Dedyukhin, Alexey Apisarov, Alexander Redkin, Olga Tkacheva, and Yurii Zaikov).

Temperature of Primary Crystallization in Part of System Na3AlF6-K3AlF6-AlF3 (Wang Jiawei, Lai Yanqing, Tian Zhongliang, Li Jie, and Liu Yexiang).

Electrical Conductivity of (Na3AlF6-40 wt%K3AlF6) - AlF3 wt% Melts (Huang Youguo, Lai Yanqing, Tian Zhongliang, Li Jie, Liu Yexiang, and Yi Qingyu).

Chemical and Electrochemical Reactions in the Al-Al2O3-Na2SO4 System at 927°C (Xiao Yan, and Marshall R. Lanyon).

Effect of LiF on Liquidus Temperature, Density and Electrical Conductivity of Molten Cryolite (Hongmin Kan, Zhaowen Wang, Zhongning Shi, Yungang Ban, Bingliang Gao, Shaohua Yang, Xiaozhou Cao, Xianwei Hu, Shaoxian Ma, and Youwei Wu).

The Development of 85kA Three-Layer Electrolysis Cell for Refining of Aluminum (Hengchao Zhao, and Huimin Lu).

Sustainability in the Casthouse.

Melting Furnaces, Technical Developments Reviewed and Thoughts for the Future (Barry Houghton, Stephen Augostine, and Graham Guest).

Metal Treatment Update (Bruno Maltais, Dominique Privé, Martin Taylor, and Marc-André Thibault).

Highest Efficiency and Economic Burner Concepts for the Metallurgical Industry (Michael Potesser, Burkhardt Holleis, Adrianus Hengelmolen, Helmut Antrekowitsch, and Davor Spoljaric).

Evaluation and Reduction of Potroom Bath Carryover to the Casthouse (Edward Williams, David DeYoung, Joe Martin, and Robert Levesque).

Understanding of the Mechanisms of Bath Carry-Over with Molten Aluminium in Smelters (Vincent Goutière, and Claude Dupuis).

Chloride Salt Injection to Replace Chlorine in the Alcoa A622 Degassing Process (Corleen Chesonis, and David DeYoung).

Casthouse Operation.

ICON: Pre-Treatment of Pot-Room Metal (Erik Aspen, Bjarne Anders Heggset, and Jo Henrik Vaagland).

Gas Fluxing of Molten Aluminum: An Overview (Geoffrey Sigworth, Eddie M. Williams, and Corleen Chesonis).

Monolithic Refractory Furnace Linings Designed for Rapid Commisioning (Zena Carden, and Andrew Brewster).

Design Considerations for Holding and Casting Furnaces (Jan Migchielsen, Hans-Walter Gräb, and Tom Schmidt).

Producing Gloss Extruded Shape Products for Special Applications -Experience from Practice (Jana Dressler, Dietmar Bramhoff, C. Deiters, and Hubert Koch).

Nonmetallic Inclusions in the Secondary Aluminium Industry for the Production of Aerospace Alloys (Bernd Prillhofer, Helmut Antrekowitsch, Holm Böttcher, and Phil Enright).

Effect of Temperature and Charge Borings in the Fluidity of an Aluminum-Silicon Alloy (Eulogio Velasco, Guillermo Ruiz, and Vincente Niño).

Production of Aluminium-Silicon-Magnesium Wrought Alloy Rod with Application in the Manufacture of Extra-High Conductivity AAAC for Overhead Electrical Transmission Lines (Mohamed Rafea).

Melt Handling and Treatment.

Melt Treatment - Evolution and Perspectives (Pierre Le Brun).

Optimisation of the Melt Quality in Casting/Holding Furnaces (Bernd Prillhofer, Helmut Antrekowitsch, and Holm Böttcher).

Variations in Aluminium Grain Refiner Performance and the Impact on Addition Optimization (Rein Vainik).

Improved Understanding of the Melting Behavior of Fused Magnesium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Based Refining Fluxes (John Courtenay).

Development of an Improved System for the Filtration of Molten Aluminium Based on a Three Stage Reactor Employing a Cyclone as the Final Stage (John Courtenay, Frank Reusch, Andrey Turchin, Dmitry Eskin, and Laurens Katgerman).

Mechanisms of Inclusion Removal from Aluminum through Filtration (Lifeng Zhang, Lucas Damoah, Shusen Li, and Wondwosen Abebe).

The Effect of Solid Particles on Foaming Process of Aluminum Melt (Hongjie Luo, Yihan Liu, Bing Li, Guangchun Yao, and Xiaoming Zhang).

Predicting of Effect of Delivery System Configuration on Flow and Solidification in the Pool of Twin-Roll Strip Casting (Bo Wang, Jieyu Zhang, Junfei Fan, Yuan Fang, and Shunli Zhao).

Foundry Ingots and Alloys.

Chain Conveyor Remelt Ingot Casting Improvement (John Grandfield, Vu Nguyen, Pat Rohan, M. Couper, and K. Oswald).

Quality and Productivity Improvements in the Manufacture of Foundry (A356.2) Alloy Ingots at Aluminium Bahrain (Ebrahim Khalil Fathi, Michael Jacobs, Anand Sandhanam, and Aref Noor).

Microstructural Improvement of Semi Solid Hypoeutectic Al-Si Foundry Alloys through Boron Addition (Shahrooz Nafisi, H. Vali, J. Szpunar, and Reza Ghomashchi).

Characterization of Zn-Al Alloys with Different Structures Using Solidification and Electrochemical Parameters (Alicia Ares, Liliana Mabel Gassa, and Carlos Enrique Schvezov).

Study of AlTiBC Master Alloy (Zeng Lifen, Liu Xiangfa, Ding Haimin, and Liu Weimin).

Casting Processes and Quality Analysis.

Characterization of the Microstructure of the AA8006 Alloy Sheets and Foils (Carmen Stanica, Petru Moldovan, Gheorghe Dobra, Dionezie Bojin, and Cristian Stanescu).

Determination of TiB2 Inclusions in Al-Billets by Single Spark Emission Spectrometry (Marcel Rosefort, Hubert Koch, Frank Urbanek, and Joerg Niederstrasser).

Mastering the Strip Geometrical Tolerances with the Twin-Roll Continuous Strip-Casting Technology (Frederic Basson, Marc Bosch, and Philippe Charlier).

On the Formation of Interdendritic Cracking Phenomena in Direct Chill Casting of Aluminum Alloy Slabs (Mostafa El-Bealy).

Novelis Fusion, a Novel Process for the Future (Todd F. Bischoff, Lawrence G. Hudson, and Robert B. Wagstaff).

Wrinkling Phenomena to Explain Vertical Fold Defects in DC-Cast Al-Mg4.5 (J. Lee Davis, and Patricio F. Mendez).

Investigation of Hydrogen Measurement Technique for Molten Aluminum (Juan Moreno Exebio, Daniel Larouche, Dany Paquin, Jasmin Proulx, and Claude Dupuis).

Ab-Initio Predictions of Interfacial Heat Flows during the High Speed Thin Strip Casting of Metals and Alloys (Donghui Li, Jinsoo Kim, Mihaiela Isac, and Roderick Guthrie).

Modelling.

Mushy Zone Mechanics and the Modeling Solidification Defects in DC Cast Aluminum (Mohammed M'Hamdi, and Asbjørn Mo).

Coupled Modeling of Air-Gap Formation and Surface Exudation during Ingot DCCasting (Dag Mortensen, Bjorn Henriksen, Mohammed M'Hamdi, and Hallvard G. Fjær).

DC Cast Thermal and Fluid Flow Simulation Using a Semi-Permeable Model of TF Combo Bag (Andre Arseneault, Daniel Larouche, Sylvain Tremblay, and Jean-Philippe Dube).

Cyclone Application for Molten Aluminium: Numerical Approach (Andrey Turchin, Dmitry Eskin, John H. Courtenay, and Laurens Katgerman).

Heat Transfer during Melt Spinning of Al-7%Si Alloy on a Cu-Be Wheel (Aravind Sundararajan, and Brian Thomas).

Inclusion Transport Phenomena in Casting Furnaces (Stephen Instone, Andreas Buchholz, and Gerd-Ulrich Gruen).

Gas Fluxing of Aluminum: Modeling Fluid Dynamics and Magnesium Removal (Autumn Fjeld, James Evans, and D. Corlee Chesonis)

Analysis of the Interaction of Particles with Non-Planar Solidifying Interface (Eliana Mabel Agaliotis, Mario Roberto Rosenberger, Alicia Ares, and Carlos Enrique Schvezov).

Electrode Technology Symposium (formerly Carbon Technology).

Carbon Sustainability and Environment Aspects.

Triple Low–Triple High, Concepts for the Anode Plant of the Future (Dragan Dojc, Wolfgang Leisenberg, and Detlef Maiwald).

New Environmental Approach at Baking Furnace (Felippe Navarro, Francisco Figueiredo, Paulo Miotto, Helio Truci, Hézio Oliveira, Marcos Silva, Raimundo Reis, Elisangela Moura, and Fabiano Mendes).

Pneumatic Transfer of Fine Carbon Residues at Albras - a Case Study at the Carbon Plant (Paulo Douglas Vasconcelos, and André Amarante Mesquita).

Development In Situ of a Semi-Automated System in the Casting Station: A Case Study at Albras (Emerson Santos, Luis Carlos Carvalho Costa, Dourivaldo Dias, Antônio Ivan Arruda, and Marco Antônio Reis).

Chemical Stability of Fluorides Related to Spent Potlining (Wangxing Li, and Xiping Chen).

Anode Raw Materials and Properties.

Coke Blending and Fines Circuit Targeting at the Alcoa Deschambault Smelter (Michel Gendron, Stephen Whelan, and Katie Cantin).

Design Criteria for Petcoke Calciners (Ravindra Narvekar, Arun Kumar Mathur, and Jose Botelho).

Understanding the Calcined Coke VBD- Porosity Paradox (Bernard Vitchus, Frank Cannova, Randall Bowers, and Shridas Ningileri).

New Analytical Methods to Determine Calcined Coke Porosity, Shape, and Size (Randall Bowers, Shridas Ningileri, David C. Palmlund, Bernard Vitchus, and Frank Cannova).

Coke and Anode Desulfurization Studies (Lorentz Petter Lossius, Keith Neyrey, and Les Edwards).

Structural Evaluation of Petroleum and Coal Tar Pitch for the Elaboration of Anodes in the Industry of the Aluminum (Rafael Tosta, and Evelyn M. Inzunza).

Anode Manufacturing and Developments.

Anode Butts Automated Visual Inspection System (Jean-Pierre Gagne, Marc-André Thibault, Gilles Dufour, Claude Gauthier, Michel Gendron, and Marie-Claude Vaillancourt).

New Rodding Shop Solutions (Nicolas Dupas).

Safe Operation of Anode Baking Furnaces (Inge Holden, Olav Sæter, Frank Aune, and Tormod Naterstad).

Baking Furnace Optimisation (Amer Al Marzouqi, Tapan Sahu, and Saleh Ahmed Rabba).

New Concept for a Green Anode Plant (Michael Kempkes, and Werner Meier).

Modelling of Anode Thermal Cracking Behavior (Odd Einar Frosta, Trygve Foosnæs, Harald Øye, and Hogne Linga).

Characteristic and Development of Production Technology of Carbon Anode in China (Guanghui Lang, Rui Liu, and Kangxing Qian).

Cathodes Raw Materials and Properties.

ISO Standards for Testing of Cathode Materials (Harald Øye).

Test and Analysis of Nitride Bonded SiC Sidelining Materials: Typical Properties Analyzed 1997-2007 (Egil Skybakmoen, Jannicke Kvello, Ove Darell, and Henrik Gudbrandsen).

High Swelling Cold Ramming Paste for Aluminum Reduction Cell (Galina Vergazova).

Wear Mechanism Study of Silicon Nitride Bonded Silicon Carbide Refractory Materials (Ron Etzion, James B Metson, and Nick Depree).

Chemical Resistance of Sidelining Refractory Based on Si3N4 Bonded SiC (Richard Laucouret, Veronique Laurent, and Didier Lombard).

Sodium Vapour Degradation of Refractories Used in Aluminium Cells (Asbjørn Solheim, and Christian Schoning).

The Effect of Current Density on Cathode Expansion during Start-Up (Arne Ratvik, Anne Støre, Asbjørn Solheim, and Trygve Foosnæs).

Change of Electrical Resistivity of Graphitized Cathode Block during and after Electrolysis in Alumina Molten Salts (Yoshinori Sato, Hiroshi Imagawa, and Noboru Akuzawa).

Cathodes Manufacturing and Developments.

Constitutive Laws of Carboneous Materials of Aluminium Electrolysis Cell: Current Knowledge and Future Development (Donald Picard, Guillaume D'Amours, and Mario Fafard).

Cathode Hot Patching to Prolong Cathode Cell Life at DUBAL (Maryam Al-Jallaf, Ali Mohamed, and Joseph Antony).

High-Performance Preparation Plant for Cathode Paste (Berthold Hohl, and Valery V. Burjak).

Twelve Years of Experience with a Fully Automated Gas Preheating System for Søderberg and Prebake Cells (Odd-Arne Lorentsen, and Ketil Rye).

Cell Preheat/Start-up and Early Operation (Ketil Rye).

Properties of Pitch and Furan-Based TiB2-C Cathodes (M.O. Ibrahiem, Trygve Foosnæs, and Harald Øye).

Electrodeposition of TiB2 from Cryolite-Alumina Melts (Dmitry Simakov, Sergei Yu. Vassiliev, Parviz U. Tursunov, N. R. Khasanova, Viktor V. Ivanov, Artem M. Abakumov, N. M. Alekseeva, Evgenii V. Antipov, and Galina A. Tsirlina).

Creep Deformation in TiB2/C Composite Cathode Materials for Aluminum Electrolysis (Jilai Xue, Qing-Sheng Liu, and Baisong Li).

Penetration of Sodium and Electrolyte to Vibratory Compaction TiB2 Cathode (Zhaowen Wang, Yungang Ban, Zhongning Shi, Bingliang Gao, Dingxion Lv, Chenggui Ma, Hongmin Kan, and Xianwei Hu).

Effect of Grain Gradation on Tapped Packing Efficiency in Preparing TiB2-C Composite Cathode for Aluminum Electrolysis (Xiaojun Lü, Jie Li, Yan-qing Lai, Qing-yu Li, Zhong-liang Tian, and Zhao Fang).

Inert Anode.

Inert Anodes: An Update (Rudolf Pawlek).

Effects of the NaF to AlF3 Ratio on Fe-Ni-Al2O3 Anode Properties for Aluminum Electrolysis (Junli Xu, Zhongning Shi, Bingliang Gao, and Zhaowen Wang).

Anti-Oxidation Properties of Iron-Nickel Alloys at 800–900°C (Zhongning Shi, Xingliang Zhao, Junli Xu, Xiaozhou Cao, Zhaowen Wang, and Bingliang Gao).

Effects of Rare Earth Element on Oxide Behavior of Fe-Ni Metal Anode for Aluminium Electrolysis (Xiaozhou Cao, Zhongning Shi, Zhaowen Wang, Ting'an Zhang, Xianwei Hu, Xingliang Zhao, Dingxiong Lu, and Youwei Wu).

Effect of Additive CaO on Corrosion Resistance of 10NiO-NiFe2O4 Ceramic Inert Anodes for Aluminium Electrolysis (Tian Zhongliang, Huang Lifeng, Lai Yanqing, Li Jie, and Liu Yexiang).

Hot and Cold Rolling Technology.

Session I.

The Role of Crystallographic Texture on the Performance of Flat Rolled Aluminum Products for Aerospace Applications (Roberto Rioja, Cindie Giummarra, and Soonwuk Cheong).

Texture Evolution during Rolling of Aluminum Alloys (Jürgen Hirsch).

Optimizing the Winding of Aluminium Strip (Michael Wimmer, Albert Cremer, Stefan Neumann, and Kai Karhausen).

Innovations in Surface Quality Inspection as a Cornerstone for Production Optimization (Uwe Knaak, and Elisa Jannasch).

Effect of Surface Engineering on Roll Bonding of the AA2024 Al Clad Plate (Jiantao Liu, Ming Li, Simon Sheu, Michael E. Karabin, and Robert W. Schultz).

Recycling.

Light Metals.

Dynamic Processes for the Recycling of Low-Quality Charge Materials (Simon Lekakh, David Robertson, Sergey Rimoshevsky, Leonid Tribyshevsky, and Vladimir Tribyshevsky).

Fundamental Study of the Decoating of Aluminium Beverage Can (Xiangjun Zuo, and Lifeng Zhang).

The Recycling of Aluminum from Building and Construction Applications (Subodh Das, and John Green).

Author Index.

Subject Index.

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