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Coastal Hypoxia: Consequences for Living Resources and Ecosystems

ISBN: 978-0-87590-272-2
464 pages
January 2001, American Geophysical Union
Coastal Hypoxia: Consequences for Living Resources and Ecosystems (0875902723) cover image

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Volume 58.

Hypoxia is a condition that occurs when dissolved oxygen falls below the level necessary to sustain most animal life. In U.S. coastal waters, and in the entire western Atlantic, we find the largest hypoxic zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico on the Louisiana/Texas continental shelf. The area affected, which is about the size of the state of New Jersey at its maximal extent, has increased since regular measurements began in 1985. Sediment cores from the hypoxic zone also show that algal production and deposition, as well as oxygen stress, were much lower earlier in the 190Os and that significant increases occurred in the latter half of the twentieth century. We publish this book against the background of such measurements, and to review how the developing and expanding hypoxic zone has affected living resources on this continental shelf.

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Table of Contents

Preface
Nancy N. Rabalais and R . Eugene Turner v

1 Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Description, Causes and Change
Nancy N. Rabalais and R. Eugene Turner  1

Section I: Plankton

2 Impacts of Changing Si/N Ratios and Phytoplankton Species Composition
Quay Dortch, Nancy N. Rabalais, R. Eugene Turner, and Naureen, A. Qureshi  37

3 Zooplankton: Responses to and Consequences of Hypoxia
Nancy H. Marcus  49

4 Distribution of Zooplankton on a Seasonally Hypoxic Continental Shelf
Naureen A. Qureshi and Nancy N. Rabalais 61

5 Pelagic Cnidarians and Ctenophores in Low Dissolved Oxygen Environments: A Review
Jennifer E. Purcell, Denise L. Breitburg, Mary Beth Decker, William M. Graham, Marsh J. Youngbluth and Kevin A . Raskoff  77 

Section II: Physiology and Behavior

6 Physiological Responses to Hypoxia
Louis E. Burnett and William B. Stickle  101

7 Responses of Nekton and Demersal and Benthic Fauna to Decreasing Oxygen Concentrations
Nancy N. Rabalais, Donald E. Harper, Jr., and R. Eugene Turner  115

Section III: Benthos

8 Overview ofAnthropogenica!!y-Induced Hypoxic Effects on Marine Benthic Fauna
Robert J. Diaz and Rutget Rosenberg  129

9 Benthic Foraminiferal Communities in Oxygen-Depleted Environments of the Louisiana Continental Shelf
Emil Platon and Barun K. Sen Gupta  147

10 Effects of Hypoxia and Anoxia on Meiofauna: A Review with New Data from the Gulf of Mexico
Markus A. Wetzel, John W.F leeger, and Sean P. Powers  165

11 Effect of Hypoxia/Anoxia on the Supply and Settlement of Benthic Invertebrate Larvae
Sean P . Powers, Donald E. Harper, Jr., and Nancy N. Rabalais  185

12 Effects of Seasonal Hypoxia on Continental Shelf Benthos
Nancy N. Rabalais, Lorene E. Smith, Donald E. Harper, Jr.,  211

13 Effects of Low Dissolved Oxygen on the Behavior, Ecology and Harvest of Fishes: A Comparison of the Chesapeake Bay and Baltic-Kattegat Systems
Denise L. Breitburg, Leif Pihl, and Sarah E. Kolesar  241

14 Ecological Effects of Hypoxia on Fish, Sea Turtles, and Marine Mammals in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico
D. Kevin Craig, Larry B. Crowder, Charlotte D. Gray, Cartie d. McDaniel, Tyrrell A. Henwood, and James G. Hanifen  269

15 Effects of Hypoxia on the Shrimp Fishery of Louisiana and Texas
Roger J. Zimmerman and James M. Nance  293

16 Distribution of Catch in the Gulf Menhaden, Brevoortia patronus, Purse Seine Fishery in the Northern Gulf of Mexico from Logbook Information: Are There Relationships to the Hypoxic Zone?
Joseph W. Smith  311

Section V: Food Webs and Ecosystems

17 The Effects of Hypoxia on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ecosystem:A Fisheries Perspective
Edward J. Chesney and Donald M. Baltz  321

18 A Brief Overview of Catchment Basin Effects on Marine Fisheries
John E. Caddy  355

19 Some Effects of Eutrophication on Pelagic and Demersal Marine Food Webs
R. Eugene Turner  371

Section VI: Perspectives

20 An Economic Perspective of Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico
Walter R. Keithly, Jr, and John M. Ward  399

21 Hypoxia, Nutrient Management and Restoration in Danish Waters
Daniel J. Conley and Alf B. Josefson 425

22 Future Perspectives for Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico
Dubravko Justic, Nancy N. Rabalais, and R. Eugene Turner  435

Summary

23 Commonality and the Future
R. Eugene Turner and Nancy N. Rabalais  451

Index  455

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