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Land Surface Hydrology, Meteorology, and Climate: Observations and Modeling

Venkataraman Lakshmi (Editor), John Albertson (Editor), John Schaake (Editor)
ISBN: 978-0-87590-352-1
246 pages
January 2001, American Geophysical Union
Land Surface Hydrology, Meteorology, and Climate: Observations and Modeling (0875903525) cover image


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Water Science and Application Series, Volume 3.

Land surface hydrology integrates various physical, chemical and biological processes that occur above, on, and below the surface of the Earth. As a result, it is critical to accurately account for land surface processes within predictive models of hydrology, meteorology, and climate.

One of our main difficulties, however, concerns the broad range of spatial and temporal scales that characterize land surface hydrological processes. For example, we determine infiltration by pore scale physics, while soil hydraulic conductivity remains a field scale property. Photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration occur at the leaf scale. Runoff is a catchment scale process, and the variability of groundwater storage is a regional scale issue. Turbulence in land-atmosphere exchanges of heat, moisture, and momentum occur on the order of seconds to minutes, while variations in land surface and air temperatures occur much more gradually: on the order of hours. The persistence of floods and droughts is seasonal to annual, and so is the effect of El Nino on regional hydrology. Long-term climate effects occur much more slowly, on the order of years to decades.

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Table of Contents

Venkatamaran Lakshmi  v

Venkatamaran Lakshmi  1


Lidar Measurements of the Dimensionless Humidity Gradient in the Unstable Atmosphere Surface Layer
William E. Eichinger, Marc B. Parlange, and Gabriel G. Katul 7

Time Difference Methods for Monitoring Regional Scale Heat Fluxes with Remote Sensing
William P. Kustas, George R. Diak, and John M.  Norman 15

Inferring Scalar Sources and Sinks Within Canopies Using Forward and Inverse Methods
Gabriel G. Katul, Chun-Ta Lai, Mario Siqueira, Karina Schafer, John D. Albertson, Karen H. Wesson, David Ellsworth, and Ram Oren  31

Ground-Based Soil Moisture and Soil Hydraulic Property Observations in Regional Scale Experiments
Richard H. Cuenca and Shaun F. Kelly  47

Section 2: MODELING

Bounding the Parameters of Land-Surface Schemes Using Observational Data
Luis A . Bastidas, Hoshin V. Gupta, and Soroosh Sorooshian 65

A Priori Estimation of Land Surface Model Parameters
Quingyun Duan, John Schaake, and Victor Koren 77

Comparing GCM-Generated Land Surface Water Budgets Using a Simple Common Framework
Randall D. Koster, Paul A. Dirmeyer, P. C. D. Milly, and Gary L. Russell  95

Development and Application of Land Surface Models for Mesoscale Atmospheric Models:
Problems and Promises
Fei Chen, Roger A. Pielke Sr., and Kenneth Mitchell  107

Evaluation of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Water and Energy Budgets Using Macroscale Hydrologic Model Simulations
Edwin P. Maurer, Greg M. O'Donnell, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and John O. Roads 137


The Effect of Sub-Grid Variability of Soil Moisture on the Simulation of Mesoscale Watershed Hydrology:
A Case Study From the Southern Great Plains 1997 Hydrology Experiment
Karen I . Mohr, James S. Famiglietti, and Aaron Boone 161

Assimilation of fAPAR and Surface Temperature Into a Land Surface and Vegetation Model
Wolfgang Knorr and Venkataraman Lakshmi  177

Experimental Design and Initial Results From the Mahurangi River Variability Experiment: MARVEX
Ross Woods, Roger Grayson, Andrew Western, Maurice Duncan, David Wilson, Roger Young, Richard Ibbitt, Roddy Henderson, and Tom McMahon  201

Integration of Land Observations and Modeling: Experiences and Strategies of a Large Scale Experiment
Richard G. Lawford  215

Hydrological Implications of the El Nifio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO):
Observations and Hydrologic Forecasting
Thomas C. Piechota, Francis H. S. Chiew, and John A. Dracup  231

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